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Research Article

A Simplified 4-Site Economical Intradermal Post-Exposure Rabies Vaccine Regimen: A Randomised Controlled Comparison with Standard Methods

  • Mary J. Warrell,

    Affiliation: The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Anna Riddell,

    Affiliation: The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Ly-Mee Yu,

    Affiliation: Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Judith Phipps,

    Affiliation: The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Linda Diggle,

    Affiliation: The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Hervé Bourhy,

    Affiliation: UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

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  • Jonathan J. Deeks,

    Affiliation: Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Anthony R. Fooks,

    Affiliation: Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterization of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, United Kingdom

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  • Laurent Audry,

    Affiliation: UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

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  • Sharon M. Brookes,

    Affiliation: Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterization of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, United Kingdom

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  • François-Xavier Meslin,

    Affiliation: Zoonoses and VPH, Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Richard Moxon,

    Affiliation: The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew J. Pollard,

    Affiliation: The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • David A. Warrell mail

    mary.warrell@ndm.ox.ac.uk

    Affiliation: The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Published: April 23, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000224

About the Authors

Mary J. Warrell, Anna Riddell, Judith Phipps, Linda Diggle, Richard Moxon, Andrew J. Pollard, David A. Warrell
The Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology & Tropical Medicine University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
Ly-Mee Yu, Jonathan J. Deeks
Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Hervé Bourhy, Laurent Audry
UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Anthony R. Fooks, Sharon M. Brookes
Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, WHO Collaborating Centre for the Characterization of Rabies and Rabies-Related Viruses, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, United Kingdom
François-Xavier Meslin
Zoonoses and VPH, Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Corresponding Author

Email: mary.warrell@ndm.ox.ac.uk

Competing Interests

AJP acts as chief investigator for clinical trials conducted on behalf of Oxford University, sponsored by vaccine manufacturers (Novartis Vaccines, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi-Aventis, Sanofi-Pasteur MSD, and Wyeth Vaccines). AJP and LD have received assistance from vaccine manufacturers to attend scientific meetings. Industry-sourced honoraria for lecturing or writing are paid directly to an independent charity or an educational/administrative fund held by the Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford. RM is a member of the SAB for Novartis. Sanofi Pasteur had no role in the trial design, the conduct of the study or the publication. MJW, AR, ARF, JJP, SMB, HB, LA, JD, F-XM, and DAW have no conflicts of interest.

Author Contributions

Wrote the paper: MJW. Supervised and co-ordinated the project: RM DAW. Conceived the project: MJW DAW. Contributed to the design, acquisition, and analysis of data: HB ARF. Performed and interpreted the statistical analysis: L-MY JJD. Contributed to the design and conduct of the study: MJW AR JP LD JJD AJP. Critically reviewed the manuscript: L-MY LD HB JJD ARF SMB RM AJP DAW. All authors approved the final article. Reviewed the protocol on behalf of the WHO: F-XM. Analysed and interpreted the serology: LA SMB.