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Research Article

The Synergistic Effect of Concomitant Schistosomiasis, Hookworm, and Trichuris Infections on Children's Anemia Burden

  • Amara E. Ezeamama mail,

    AEzeamama@healtheffects.org

    Affiliations: Department of Community Health and International Health Institute, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Stephen T. McGarvey,

    Affiliation: Department of Community Health and International Health Institute, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

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  • Luz P. Acosta,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Research Institute of Tropical Medicine, Manila, The Philippines

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  • Sally Zierler,

    Affiliation: Department of Community Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

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  • Daria L. Manalo,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Research Institute of Tropical Medicine, Manila, The Philippines

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  • Hai-Wei Wu,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathogenic Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

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  • Jonathan D. Kurtis,

    Affiliations: Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

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  • Vincent Mor,

    Affiliation: Department of Community Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

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  • Remigio M. Olveda,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Research Institute of Tropical Medicine, Manila, The Philippines

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  • Jennifer F. Friedman

    Affiliations: Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

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  • Published: June 04, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000245

About the Authors

Amara E. Ezeamama, Stephen T. McGarvey
Department of Community Health and International Health Institute, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
Amara E. Ezeamama
Health Effects Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Luz P. Acosta, Daria L. Manalo, Remigio M. Olveda
Department of Immunology, Research Institute of Tropical Medicine, Manila, The Philippines
Sally Zierler, Vincent Mor
Department of Community Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
Hai-Wei Wu
Department of Pathogenic Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
Jonathan D. Kurtis, Jennifer F. Friedman
Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
Jonathan D. Kurtis
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America
Jennifer F. Friedman
Department of Pediatrics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: AEzeamama@healtheffects.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AE DM HW JK JF. Performed the experiments: AE DM HW JF. Analyzed the data: AE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AE SM JK VM JF. Wrote the paper: AE SM LA SZ JK VM RO JF. Critiqued drafts of the manuscript: DM RO. Provided substantive contribution regarding the definition of interaction terms, and reviewed, refined, and approved manuscript drafts: SZ.