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Research Article

Filarial Lymphedema Is Characterized by Antigen-Specific Th1 and Th17 Proinflammatory Responses and a Lack of Regulatory T Cells

  • Subash Babu mail,

    sbabu@mail.nih.gov

    Affiliations: National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India, SAIC–Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Sajid Q. Bhat,

    Affiliation: National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India

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  • N. Pavan Kumar,

    Affiliation: National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India

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  • Angelo B. Lipira,

    Affiliation: National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India

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  • Sanath Kumar,

    Affiliation: National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India

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  • C. Karthik,

    Affiliation: National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India

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  • V. Kumaraswami,

    Affiliations: National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India, Tuberculosis Research Center, Chennai, India

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  • Thomas B. Nutman

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: April 21, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000420

About the Authors

Subash Babu, Sajid Q. Bhat, N. Pavan Kumar, Angelo B. Lipira, Sanath Kumar, C. Karthik, V. Kumaraswami
National Institutes of Health–International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India
Subash Babu
SAIC–Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
V. Kumaraswami
Tuberculosis Research Center, Chennai, India
Thomas B. Nutman
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: sbabu@mail.nih.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SB TBN. Performed the experiments: SB SQB NPK ABL SK CK. Analyzed the data: SB SQB NPK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: VK TBN. Wrote the paper: SB TBN. Assisted in gathering the data: VK.