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Research Article

Early Exposure of Infants to GI Nematodes Induces Th2 Dominant Immune Responses Which Are Unaffected by Periodic Anthelminthic Treatment

  • Victoria J. Wright,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Shaali Makame Ame,

    Affiliation: Public Health Laboratory Ivo de Carneri, Wawi, Chake Chake, Pemba Island, Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania

    X
  • Haji Said Haji,

    Affiliation: Public Health Laboratory Ivo de Carneri, Wawi, Chake Chake, Pemba Island, Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania

    X
  • Rosemary E. Weir,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • David Goodman,

    Affiliation: Centre for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • David I. Pritchard,

    Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

    X
  • Mahdi Ramsan Mohamed,

    Affiliation: RTI International, Dar es Salam, United Republic of Tanzania

    X
  • Hamad Juma Haji,

    Affiliation: Public Health Laboratory Ivo de Carneri, Wawi, Chake Chake, Pemba Island, Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania

    X
  • James M. Tielsch,

    Affiliation: Centre for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Rebecca J. Stoltzfus,

    Affiliation: Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

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  • Quentin D. Bickle mail

    quentin.bickle@lshtm.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: May 19, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000433

About the Authors

Victoria J. Wright, Rosemary E. Weir, Quentin D. Bickle
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Shaali Makame Ame, Haji Said Haji, Hamad Juma Haji
Public Health Laboratory Ivo de Carneri, Wawi, Chake Chake, Pemba Island, Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania
David Goodman, James M. Tielsch
Centre for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
David I. Pritchard
School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
Mahdi Ramsan Mohamed
RTI International, Dar es Salam, United Republic of Tanzania
Rebecca J. Stoltzfus
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: quentin.bickle@lshtm.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: VJW REW JMT RJS QDB. Performed the experiments: VJW SMA HSH QDB. Analyzed the data: VJW QDB. Wrote the paper: VJW QDB. Responsible for parasitology: DG. Supplied hookworm antigen and reviewed paper: DIP. Supervised fieldwork: MRM HJH.