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Research Article

Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

  • Dennis J. Grab mail,

    dgrab1@jhmi.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jose C. Garcia-Garcia,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Olga V. Nikolskaia,

    Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Yuri V. Kim,

    Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    Current address: Institute of Human Virology, School of Medicine University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

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  • Amanda Brown,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Carlos A. Pardo,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Yongqing Zhang,

    Affiliation: Gene Expression and Genomics Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Kevin G. Becker,

    Affiliation: Gene Expression and Genomics Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Brenda A. Wilson,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Ana Paula C. de A. Lima,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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  • Julio Scharfstein,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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  • J. Stephen Dumler

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: July 21, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000479

About the Authors

Dennis J. Grab, Olga V. Nikolskaia, Yuri V. Kim
Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Dennis J. Grab, Jose C. Garcia-Garcia, J. Stephen Dumler
Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Amanda Brown, Carlos A. Pardo
Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G. Becker
Gene Expression and Genomics Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Brenda A. Wilson
Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
Ana Paula C. de A. Lima, Julio Scharfstein
Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Corresponding Author

Email: dgrab1@jhmi.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DJG JCGG YVK CAP KGB BAW APCdAL JS JSD. Performed the experiments: DJG JCGG OVN AB. Analyzed the data: DJG JCGG OVN YZ KGB JSD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DJG BAW APCdAL. Wrote the paper: DJG JCGG JSD.