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Research Article

Reduced Susceptibility to Praziquantel among Naturally Occurring Kenyan Isolates of Schistosoma mansoni

  • Sandra D. Melman,

    Affiliation: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Michelle L. Steinauer mail,

    michelle.steinauer@oregonstate.edu

    Affiliation: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Charles Cunningham,

    Affiliation: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Laura S. Kubatko,

    Affiliation: Departments of Statistics and Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

    X
  • Ibrahim N. Mwangi,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

    X
  • Nirvana Barker Wynn,

    Affiliation: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Martin W. Mutuku,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

    X
  • Diana M. S. Karanja,

    Affiliation: Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Daniel G. Colley,

    Affiliation: Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases and Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

    X
  • Carla L. Black,

    Affiliation: Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases and Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

    X
  • William Evan Secor,

    Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    X
  • Gerald M. Mkoji,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

    X
  • Eric S. Loker

    Affiliation: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Published: August 18, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000504

About the Authors

Sandra D. Melman, Michelle L. Steinauer, Charles Cunningham, Nirvana Barker Wynn, Eric S. Loker
Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America
Laura S. Kubatko
Departments of Statistics and Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America
Ibrahim N. Mwangi, Martin W. Mutuku, Gerald M. Mkoji
Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Diana M. S. Karanja
Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
Daniel G. Colley, Carla L. Black
Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases and Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America
William Evan Secor
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: michelle.steinauer@oregonstate.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SDM MLS CC NBW ESL. Performed the experiments: SDM MLS CC INM NBW MWM. Analyzed the data: SDM MLS LSK INM NBW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CC DMSK DGC CLB WES GMM ESL. Wrote the paper: SDM MLS LSK ESL.