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Research Article

Immunisation with a Multivalent, Subunit Vaccine Reduces Patent Infection in a Natural Bovine Model of Onchocerciasis during Intense Field Exposure

  • Benjamin L. Makepeace,

    Affiliation: Veterinary Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Siv Aina Jensen,

    Affiliation: Veterinary Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    Current address: Emerging Zoonoses JRG, Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Sandra J. Laney,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Charles K. Nfon,

    Affiliations: Veterinary Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom, Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement, Wakwa, Adamawa Region, Cameroon

    Current address: National Center for Foreign Animal Diseases, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, Canada

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  • Leo M. Njongmeta,

    Affiliation: Veterinary Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    Current address: Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America

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  • Vincent N. Tanya,

    Affiliation: Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement, Wakwa, Adamawa Region, Cameroon

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  • Steven A. Williams,

    Affiliations: Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Albert E. Bianco,

    Affiliation: Veterinary Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Alexander J. Trees mail

    trees@liv.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Veterinary Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Published: November 10, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000544

About the Authors

Benjamin L. Makepeace, Siv Aina Jensen, Charles K. Nfon, Leo M. Njongmeta, Albert E. Bianco, Alexander J. Trees
Veterinary Parasitology Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Sandra J. Laney, Steven A. Williams
Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, United States of America
Charles K. Nfon, Vincent N. Tanya
Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement, Wakwa, Adamawa Region, Cameroon
Steven A. Williams
Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: trees@liv.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: VNT SAW AEB AJT. Performed the experiments: BLM SAJ SJL CKN LMN AEB AJT. Analyzed the data: BLM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SJL SAW AEB. Wrote the paper: BLM SAJ SJL AEB AJT.