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Research Article

Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Non-Inferiority Trial of Two Antivenoms for Saw-Scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis ocellatus) Envenoming in Nigeria

  • Isa S. Abubakar,

    Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Bayero University of Kano, Kano, Nigeria

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  • Saidu B. Abubakar,

    Affiliation: General Hospital Kaltungo, Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria

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  • Abdulrazaq G. Habib mail,

    abdulrazaq_habib@yahoo.co.uk

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria

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  • Abdulsalam Nasidi,

    Affiliation: Special Projects Unit, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Nandul Durfa,

    Affiliation: Special Projects Unit, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Peter O. Yusuf,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

    X
  • Solomon Larnyang †,

    † Deceased.

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  • John Garnvwa,

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Elijah Sokomba,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

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  • Lateef Salako,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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  • R. David G Theakston,

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Ed Juszczak,

    Affiliation: Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Nicola Alder,

    Affiliation: Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • David A. Warrell,

    Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • for the Nigeria-UK EchiTab Study Group
  • Published: July 27, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000767

About the Authors

Isa S. Abubakar
Department of Community Medicine, Bayero University of Kano, Kano, Nigeria
Saidu B. Abubakar
General Hospital Kaltungo, Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria
Abdulrazaq G. Habib
Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria
Abdulsalam Nasidi, Nandul Durfa
Special Projects Unit, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria
Peter O. Yusuf
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
John Garnvwa, R. David G Theakston
Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Elijah Sokomba
Department of Pharmacology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Lateef Salako
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Ed Juszczak, Nicola Alder
Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
David A. Warrell
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: abdulrazaq_habib@yahoo.co.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AN ND SL JG ES LS RDGT DAW. Performed the experiments: ISA SBA AGH ND POY SL JG ES LS RDGT DAW. Analyzed the data: ISA AGH POY RDGT EJ NA DAW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RDGT. Wrote the paper: ISA SBA AGH AN ND POY SL JG ES LS RDGT EJ NA DAW. Designed the study protocol: AGH RDGT EJ NA DAW. Carried out the clinical assessments: ISA SAB AGH SL DAW. Identified the snakes: POY DAW. Responsible for trial logistics: AN ND JG. Contributed to the EchiTAb Study Group Nigeria: ES LS. Managed the database: ISA AGH. Provided statistical advice on analysis of data: EJ NA AGH. Assessed and interpreted the study outcomes: AGH RDGT EJ NA DAW. Drafted the manuscript: ISA AGH RDGT EJ DAW.