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Research Article

Pre-Clinical Assays Predict Pan-African Echis Viper Efficacy for a Species-Specific Antivenom

  • Nicholas R. Casewell,

    Affiliations: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom

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  • Darren A. N. Cook,

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Simon C. Wagstaff,

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Abdulsalami Nasidi,

    Affiliation: Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Nandul Durfa,

    Affiliation: Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Wolfgang Wüster,

    Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom

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  • Robert A. Harrison mail

    r.harrison@liverpool.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Published: October 26, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000851

About the Authors

Nicholas R. Casewell, Darren A. N. Cook, Simon C. Wagstaff, Robert A. Harrison
Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Nicholas R. Casewell, Wolfgang Wüster
School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom
Abdulsalami Nasidi, Nandul Durfa
Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

Corresponding Author

Email: r.harrison@liverpool.ac.uk

Competing Interests

NRC is now an employee of MicroPharm Ltd., but was not when the experiments were conceived and conducted. RAH, AN and ND are members of the EchiTAb Study Group, whose objective is to ensure that snakebite victims gain access to effective antivenom treatment.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NRC SCW WW RAH. Performed the experiments: NRC DANC RAH. Analyzed the data: NRC SCW RAH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AN ND RAH. Wrote the paper: NRC RAH.