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Research Article

HTLV-1 Tax Specific CD8+ T Cells Express Low Levels of Tim-3 in HTLV-1 Infection: Implications for Progression to Neurological Complications

  • Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Fabio E. Leal

    lndhlovu@medsfgh.ucsf.edu; lndhlovu@hawaii.edu

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Fabio E. Leal equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Fabio E. Leal

    Affiliations: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Aaron M. Hasenkrug,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Aashish R. Jha,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Karina I. Carvalho,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Ijeoma G. Eccles-James,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Fernanda R. Bruno,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Raphaella G. S. Vieira,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Vanessa A. York,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Glen M. Chew,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • R. Brad Jones,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Yuetsu Tanaka,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

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  • Walter K. Neto,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Sabri S. Sanabani,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Mario A. Ostrowski,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Aluisio C. Segurado,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Douglas F. Nixon ,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Esper G. Kallas

    Affiliations: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Published: April 26, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001030

About the Authors

Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Aaron M. Hasenkrug, Aashish R. Jha, Ijeoma G. Eccles-James, Raphaella G. S. Vieira, Vanessa A. York, Glen M. Chew, Douglas F. Nixon
Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Fabio E. Leal, Karina I. Carvalho, Fernanda R. Bruno, Esper G. Kallas
Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Fabio E. Leal, Aluisio C. Segurado, Esper G. Kallas
Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
R. Brad Jones, Mario A. Ostrowski
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Yuetsu Tanaka
Department of Immunology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
Walter K. Neto, Sabri S. Sanabani
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

L.C. Ndhlovu, R. Brad Jones, M.A. Ostrowski and D.F. Nixon are named as inventors on a patent application related to modulation of Tim-3 in viral infections.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LCN FEL DFN EGK. Performed the experiments: LCN FEL AMH ARJ GMC IGE-J FRB VAY WKN SSS RGSV. Analyzed the data: LCN FEL AMH ARJ KIC IGE-J VAY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LCN DFN ACS EGK SSS WKN YT. Wrote the paper: LCN FEL. Technical and scientific input: RBJ MAO. Edited the manuscript: DFN EGK.