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Research Article

Seasonality and Prevalence of Leishmania major Infection in Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemaire from Two Neighboring Villages in Central Mali

  • Jennifer M. Anderson equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jennifer M. Anderson, Sibiry Samake

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Sibiry Samake equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jennifer M. Anderson, Sibiry Samake

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Giovanna Jaramillo-Gutierrez,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

    Current address: Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands and European Programme for Public Health Microbiology Training (EUPHEM) in collaboration with Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Ibrahim Sissoko,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Cheick A. Coulibaly,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Bourama Traoré,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Constance Soucko,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Boubacar Guindo,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Dansine Diarra,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Michael P. Fay,

    Affiliation: Biostatistics Research Branch, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Phillip G. Lawyer,

    Affiliation: Intracellular Parasite Biology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Seydou Doumbia,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Jesus G. Valenzuela,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Shaden Kamhawi mail

    skamhawi@niaid.nih.gov

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: May 10, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001139

About the Authors

Jennifer M. Anderson, Giovanna Jaramillo-Gutierrez, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi
Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Sibiry Samake, Ibrahim Sissoko, Cheick A. Coulibaly, Bourama Traoré, Boubacar Guindo, Dansine Diarra, Seydou Doumbia
Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali
Constance Soucko
Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali
Michael P. Fay
Biostatistics Research Branch, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Phillip G. Lawyer
Intracellular Parasite Biology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: skamhawi@niaid.nih.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JMA SS CS PGL SD JGV SK. Performed the experiments: JMA SS GJ-G IS CAC BT BG DD. Analyzed the data: JMA SS MPF PGL SD JGV SK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BG DD MPF. Wrote the paper: JMA SS MPF PGL SD JGV SK.