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Research Article

Effects of Chronic Ascariasis and Trichuriasis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression in Human Blood: A Cross-Sectional Study

  • Miguel Reina Ortiz equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Miguel Reina Ortiz, Fernanda Schreiber

    Affiliations: Centro de Investigaciones, Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quinindé, Ecuador, Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador

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  • Fernanda Schreiber equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Miguel Reina Ortiz, Fernanda Schreiber

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Susana Benitez,

    Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones, Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quinindé, Ecuador

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  • Nely Broncano,

    Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones, Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quinindé, Ecuador

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  • Martha E. Chico,

    Affiliations: Centro de Investigaciones, Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quinindé, Ecuador, Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador

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  • Maritza Vaca,

    Affiliations: Centro de Investigaciones, Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quinindé, Ecuador, Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador

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  • Neal Alexander,

    Affiliation: Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • David J. Lewis,

    Affiliation: St. George's Vaccine Institute, St. George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Gordon Dougan,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Philip J. Cooper mail

    P.J.Cooper@liv.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Centro de Investigaciones, Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quinindé, Ecuador, Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador, Centre for Infection, St. George's University of London, London, United Kingdom, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Published: June 07, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001157

About the Authors

Miguel Reina Ortiz, Susana Benitez, Nely Broncano, Martha E. Chico, Maritza Vaca, Philip J. Cooper
Centro de Investigaciones, Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quinindé, Ecuador
Miguel Reina Ortiz, Martha E. Chico, Maritza Vaca, Philip J. Cooper
Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador
Fernanda Schreiber, Gordon Dougan
Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom
Neal Alexander
Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
David J. Lewis
St. George's Vaccine Institute, St. George's University of London, London, United Kingdom
Philip J. Cooper
Centre for Infection, St. George's University of London, London, United Kingdom
Philip J. Cooper
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: P.J.Cooper@liv.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PJC MRO MEC DJL GD. Performed the experiments: MRO FS SB NB MV. Analyzed the data: MRO FS NA PJC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GD DJL. Wrote the paper: PJC MRO FS GD.