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Research Article

Necator americanus and Helminth Co-Infections: Further Down-Modulation of Hookworm-Specific Type 1 Immune Responses

  • Stefan Michael Geiger mail,

    stefan@cpqrr.fiocruz.br

    Affiliations: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Neal Douglas Edward Alexander,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Department for Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara,

    Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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  • Simon Brooker,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Department for Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Bonnie Cundill,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Department for Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • David Joseph Diemert,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira,

    Affiliation: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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  • Jeffrey Michael Bethony

    Affiliations: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Published: September 06, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001280

About the Authors

Stefan Michael Geiger, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Jeffrey Michael Bethony
Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Stefan Michael Geiger, Neal Douglas Edward Alexander, David Joseph Diemert, Jeffrey Michael Bethony
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America
Neal Douglas Edward Alexander, Simon Brooker, Bonnie Cundill
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Department for Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Corresponding Author

Email: stefan@cpqrr.fiocruz.br

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SMG RTF DJD JMB. Performed the experiments: SMG RTF. Analyzed the data: SMG NDEA RTF BC JMB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DJD RCO JMB. Wrote the paper: SMG NDEA RTF JMB. Analysis and interpretation of data: SMG NDEA RTF SB BC DJD RCO JMB. Drafted the manuscript: SMG RTF NDEA JMB. Revised the manuscript: SMG NDEA RTF SB BC DJD RCO JMB.