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Research Article

Genetic Manipulation of Schistosoma haematobium, the Neglected Schistosome

  • Gabriel Rinaldi,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America, Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, (UDELAR), Montevideo, Uruguay

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  • Tunika I. Okatcha,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America, Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America

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  • Anastas Popratiloff,

    Affiliation: Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States of America

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  • Mary A. Ayuk,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America

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  • Sutas Suttiprapa,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America

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  • Victoria H. Mann,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America

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  • Yung-san Liang,

    Affiliation: Biomedical Research Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Fred A. Lewis,

    Affiliation: Biomedical Research Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Alex Loukas,

    Affiliation: Queensland Tropical Health Alliance, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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  • Paul J. Brindley mail

    paul.brindley@gwumc.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America

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  • Published: October 11, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001348

About the Authors

Gabriel Rinaldi, Tunika I. Okatcha, Mary A. Ayuk, Sutas Suttiprapa, Victoria H. Mann, Paul J. Brindley
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America
Gabriel Rinaldi
Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, (UDELAR), Montevideo, Uruguay
Tunika I. Okatcha
Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America
Anastas Popratiloff
Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States of America
Yung-san Liang, Fred A. Lewis
Biomedical Research Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Alex Loukas
Queensland Tropical Health Alliance, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

Corresponding Author

Email: paul.brindley@gwumc.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GR SS AP VHM AL PJB. Performed the experiments: GR TIO AP MAA SS. Analyzed the data: GR AP SS VHM AL PJB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GR AP SS AL VHM Y-sL FAL PJB. Wrote the paper: GR AP FAL AL PJB. Confocal microscopy and imaging: AP SS GR.