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Research Article

In Vivo Expression of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Genes in the Blood of Patients with Typhoid Fever in Bangladesh

  • Alaullah Sheikh equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Alaullah Sheikh, Richelle C. Charles

    Affiliations: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Richelle C. Charles equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Alaullah Sheikh, Richelle C. Charles

    rccharles@partners.org

    Affiliations: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Nusrat Sharmeen,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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  • Sean M. Rollins,

    Affiliations: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Jason B. Harris,

    Affiliations: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Md. Saruar Bhuiyan,

    Affiliations: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Mohammad Arifuzzaman,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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  • Farhana Khanam,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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  • Archana Bukka,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America

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  • Anuj Kalsy,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Steffen Porwollik,

    Affiliation: The Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Daniel T. Leung,

    Affiliations: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • W. Abdullah Brooks,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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  • Regina C. LaRocque,

    Affiliations: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth L. Hohmann,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Alejandro Cravioto,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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  • Tanya Logvinenko,

    Affiliation: Division of Biostatistics, Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies (ICRHPS), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Stephen B. Calderwood,

    Affiliations: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Michael McClelland,

    Affiliation: The Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • James E. Graham,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America

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  • Firdausi Qadri ,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Edward T. Ryan

    Affiliations: Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Published: December 13, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001419

About the Authors

Alaullah Sheikh, Nusrat Sharmeen, Md. Saruar Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arifuzzaman, Farhana Khanam, W. Abdullah Brooks, Alejandro Cravioto, Firdausi Qadri
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh
Alaullah Sheikh, Richelle C. Charles, Sean M. Rollins, Jason B. Harris, Md. Saruar Bhuiyan, Anuj Kalsy, Daniel T. Leung, Regina C. LaRocque, Elizabeth L. Hohmann, Stephen B. Calderwood, Edward T. Ryan
Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Richelle C. Charles, Sean M. Rollins, Jason B. Harris, Daniel T. Leung, Regina C. LaRocque, Edward T. Ryan
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Archana Bukka, James E. Graham
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America
Steffen Porwollik, Michael McClelland
The Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
Tanya Logvinenko
Division of Biostatistics, Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies (ICRHPS), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Stephen B. Calderwood
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Edward T. Ryan
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rccharles@partners.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AS RCC NS SMR JBH MSB MA FK AB AK SP DTL WAB RCL ELH AC TL SBC MM JEG FQ ETR. Performed the experiments: AS RCC NS FK AB AK SMR MA MSB SP DTL. Analyzed the data: TL AS RCC MM SP ETR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ELH JBH RCL SBC ETR JEG MM SP FQ AC WAB TL. Wrote the paper: AS RCC NS SMR JBH MSB MA FK AB AK SP DTL WAB RCL ELH AC TL SBC MM JEG FQ ETR.