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Research Article

A Somatically Diversified Defense Factor, FREP3, Is a Determinant of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection

  • Patrick C. Hanington mail,

    pch1@ualberta.ca

    Affiliation: Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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  • Michelle A. Forys,

    Affiliation: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

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  • Eric S. Loker

    Affiliation: Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

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  • Published: March 27, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001591

About the Authors

Patrick C. Hanington
Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Michelle A. Forys, Eric S. Loker
Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: pch1@ualberta.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PCH ESL. Performed the experiments: PCH MAF. Analyzed the data: PCH MAF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ESL. Wrote the paper: PCH ESL.