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Research Article

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Group 1 Is Distinguished by a Unique Amino Acid Substitution in the HpHb Receptor Implicated in Human Serum Resistance

  • Rebecca E. Symula equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Rebecca E. Symula, Jon S. Beadell

    resymula@olemiss.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Yale School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, Mississippi, United States of America

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  • Jon S. Beadell equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Rebecca E. Symula, Jon S. Beadell

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

    X
  • Mark Sistrom,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Kehinde Agbebakun,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Oliver Balmer,

    Affiliations: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, Institute of Zoology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Frick, Switzerland

    X
  • Wendy Gibson,

    Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Serap Aksoy,

    Affiliation: Yale School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Adalgisa Caccone

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Published: July 10, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001728

About the Authors

Rebecca E. Symula, Jon S. Beadell, Mark Sistrom, Kehinde Agbebakun, Adalgisa Caccone
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Rebecca E. Symula, Serap Aksoy
Yale School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Rebecca E. Symula
Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, Mississippi, United States of America
Oliver Balmer
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
Oliver Balmer
Institute of Zoology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Oliver Balmer
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Frick, Switzerland
Wendy Gibson
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: resymula@olemiss.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JSB. Performed the experiments: RES JSB KA. Analyzed the data: RES. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: OB WG SA AC. Wrote the paper: RES JSB MS. Provided isolates for sequencing: OB WG. Provided valuable contributions to the direction, scope and composition of the paper: JSB MS OB SA WG AC.