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Research Article

Salmonella Typhi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Fluoroquinolone Decreased Susceptibility on the Rise

  • Octavie Lunguya,

    Affiliations: National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, University Hospital of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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  • Veerle Lejon mail,

    vlejon@itg.be

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Marie-France Phoba,

    Affiliations: National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, University Hospital of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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  • Sophie Bertrand,

    Affiliation: Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium

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  • Raymond Vanhoof,

    Affiliation: Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium

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  • Jan Verhaegen,

    Affiliation: University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Anthony Marius Smith,

    Affiliation: Centre for Enteric Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Karen Helena Keddy,

    Affiliation: Centre for Enteric Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum,

    Affiliations: National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, University Hospital of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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  • Jan Jacobs

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Published: November 15, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001921

About the Authors

Octavie Lunguya, Marie-France Phoba, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum
National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Octavie Lunguya, Marie-France Phoba, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum
University Hospital of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Veerle Lejon, Jan Jacobs
Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
Sophie Bertrand, Raymond Vanhoof
Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
Jan Verhaegen
University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Anthony Marius Smith, Karen Helena Keddy
Centre for Enteric Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Corresponding Author

Email: vlejon@itg.be

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: OL JV JJMT JJ. Performed the experiments: OL VL MFP. Analyzed the data: OL VL SB RV JV AMS KHK JJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: OL MFP SB RV JV AMS KHK JJMT JJ. Wrote the paper: OL VL AMS KHK JJ.