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Research Article

Endemic Foci of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia crocidurae in Mali, West Africa, and the Potential for Human Infection

  • Tom G. Schwan mail,

    tschwan@niaid.nih.gov

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America

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  • Jennifer M. Anderson,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Twinbrook, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Job E. Lopez,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, United States of America

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  • Robert J. Fischer,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America

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  • Sandra J. Raffel,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America

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  • Brandi N. McCoy,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America

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  • David Safronetz,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America

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  • Nafomon Sogoba,

    Affiliation: Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Ousmane Maïga,

    Affiliation: Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Sékou F. Traoré

    Affiliation: Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Published: November 29, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001924

About the Authors

Tom G. Schwan, Job E. Lopez, Robert J. Fischer, Sandra J. Raffel, Brandi N. McCoy
Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
Jennifer M. Anderson
Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Twinbrook, Maryland, United States of America
David Safronetz
Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
Nafomon Sogoba, Ousmane Maïga, Sékou F. Traoré
Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

Corresponding Author

Email: tschwan@niaid.nih.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no completing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TGS JMA RJF NS OM SFT. Performed the experiments: TGS JMA JEL RJF SJR BNM DS NS OM SFT. Analyzed the data: TGS RJF SJR BNM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TGS JMA RJF SJR BNM. Wrote the paper: TGS.