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Research Article

Expansion in CD39+ CD4+ Immunoregulatory T Cells and Rarity of Th17 Cells in HTLV-1 Infected Patients Is Associated with Neurological Complications

  • Fabio E. Leal equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Fabio E. Leal, Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu

    Affiliations: The Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Hawaii Center of AIDS, Department of Tropical Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America, Deparment of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    X
  • Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Fabio E. Leal, Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu

    Affiliations: The Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Hawaii Center of AIDS, Department of Tropical Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

    X
  • Aaron M. Hasenkrug,

    Affiliation: The Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Fernanda R. Bruno,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    X
  • Karina I. Carvalho,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    X
  • Harry Wynn-Williams,

    Affiliation: Hawaii Center of AIDS, Department of Tropical Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

    X
  • Walter K. Neto,

    Affiliations: Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Translational Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    X
  • Sabri S. Sanabani,

    Affiliation: Deparment of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    X
  • Aluisio C. Segurado,

    Affiliation: Deparment of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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  • Douglas F. Nixon,

    Affiliation: The Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Esper G. Kallas mail

    esper.kallas@usp.br

    Affiliations: Deparment of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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  • Published: February 07, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002028

About the Authors

Fabio E. Leal, Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Aaron M. Hasenkrug, Douglas F. Nixon
The Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Fabio E. Leal, Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Harry Wynn-Williams
Hawaii Center of AIDS, Department of Tropical Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
Fabio E. Leal, Sabri S. Sanabani, Aluisio C. Segurado, Esper G. Kallas
Deparment of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Fernanda R. Bruno, Karina I. Carvalho, Esper G. Kallas
Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Walter K. Neto
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, Brazil
Walter K. Neto
Department of Translational Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Corresponding Author

Email: esper.kallas@usp.br

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FEL LCN ACS DFN EGK. Performed the experiments: FEL LCN AMH FRB KIC HWW WKN SSS. Analyzed the data: FEL LCN AMH FRB KIC HWW WKN DFN EGK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LCN KIC SSS DFN EGK. Wrote the paper: FEL LCN WKN DFN EGK.