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Research Article

Immune Response to Snake Envenoming and Treatment with Antivenom; Complement Activation, Cytokine Production and Mast Cell Degranulation

  • Shelley F. Stone mail,

    Shelley.Stone@uwa.edu.au

    Affiliations: Centre for Clinical Research in Emergency Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and the University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

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  • Geoffrey K. Isbister,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle and Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia, South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Peradeniya, Central Province, Sri Lanka

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  • Seyed Shahmy,

    Affiliation: South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Peradeniya, Central Province, Sri Lanka

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  • Fahim Mohamed,

    Affiliation: South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Peradeniya, Central Province, Sri Lanka

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  • Chandana Abeysinghe,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Polonnaruwa General Hospital, North Central Province, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka

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  • Harendra Karunathilake,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Polonnaruwa General Hospital, North Central Province, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka

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  • Ariaranee Ariaratnam,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka

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  • Tamara E. Jacoby-Alner,

    Affiliations: Centre for Clinical Research in Emergency Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and the University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Computer, Health and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

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  • Claire L. Cotterell,

    Affiliations: Centre for Clinical Research in Emergency Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and the University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

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  • Simon G. A. Brown

    Affiliations: Centre for Clinical Research in Emergency Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and the University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

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  • Published: July 25, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002326

About the Authors

Shelley F. Stone, Tamara E. Jacoby-Alner, Claire L. Cotterell, Simon G. A. Brown
Centre for Clinical Research in Emergency Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and the University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Shelley F. Stone, Claire L. Cotterell, Simon G. A. Brown
Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Geoffrey K. Isbister
Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle and Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
Geoffrey K. Isbister, Seyed Shahmy, Fahim Mohamed
South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Peradeniya, Central Province, Sri Lanka
Chandana Abeysinghe, Harendra Karunathilake
Department of Medicine, Polonnaruwa General Hospital, North Central Province, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka
Ariaranee Ariaratnam
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Tamara E. Jacoby-Alner
School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Computer, Health and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

Corresponding Author

Email: Shelley.Stone@uwa.edu.au

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SFS GKI SGAB AA. Performed the experiments: SFS TEJA CLC SS. Analyzed the data: SFS GKI SGAB. Wrote the paper: SFS GKI SGAB. The study co-ordinator for the RCT, performed data collection and database supervision: SS. Co-ordinator of the South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration: FM. Recruited patients and collected clinical samples: CA HK AA. Ethics submissions: AA.