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Research Article

Non-Invasive Sampling of Schistosomes from Humans Requires Correcting for Family Structure

  • Michelle L. Steinauer mail,

    msteinauer@westernu.edu

    Affiliation: College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific Northwest, Western University of Health Sciences, Lebanon, Oregon, United States of America

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  • Mark R. Christie,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America

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  • Michael S. Blouin,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America

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  • Lelo E. Agola,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Ibrahim N. Mwangi,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Geoffrey M. Maina,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Martin W. Mutuku,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Joseph M. Kinuthia,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Gerald M. Mkoji,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Eric S. Loker

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

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  • Published: September 19, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002456

About the Authors

Michelle L. Steinauer
College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific Northwest, Western University of Health Sciences, Lebanon, Oregon, United States of America
Mark R. Christie, Michael S. Blouin
Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America
Lelo E. Agola, Ibrahim N. Mwangi, Geoffrey M. Maina, Martin W. Mutuku, Joseph M. Kinuthia, Gerald M. Mkoji
Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Eric S. Loker
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: msteinauer@westernu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MLS MRC MSB ESL. Performed the experiments: MLS MRC MSB LEA INM MWM JMK GMM. Analyzed the data: MLS MRC MSB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GMM ESL. Wrote the paper: MLS MRC MSB.