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Research Article

Safety and Efficacy of Single Dose versus Multiple Doses of AmBisome® for Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa: A Randomised Trial

  • Eltahir A. G. Khalil,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Teklu Weldegebreal,

    Affiliation: Arba Minch Hospital, Regional Health Bureau of SNNP State, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

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  • Brima M. Younis,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Raymond Omollo,

    Affiliation: Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) Africa Regional Office, Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Ahmed M. Musa,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Workagegnehu Hailu,

    Affiliation: University of Gondar, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia

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  • Abuzaid A. Abuzaid,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Thomas P. C. Dorlo,

    Affiliations: Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Slotervaart Hospital/The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Zewdu Hurissa,

    Affiliation: University of Gondar, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia

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  • Sisay Yifru,

    Affiliation: University of Gondar, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia

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  • William Haleke,

    Affiliation: Arba Minch Hospital, Regional Health Bureau of SNNP State, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

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  • Peter G. Smith,

    Affiliation: MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Sally Ellis,

    Affiliation: Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Manica Balasegaram,

    Affiliation: Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Ahmed M. EL-Hassan,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Gerard J. Schoone,

    Affiliation: Royal Tropical Institute, KIT Biomedical Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Monique Wasunna,

    Affiliations: Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) Africa Regional Office, Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

    X
  • Robert Kimutai,

    Affiliations: Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) Africa Regional Office, Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Tansy Edwards,

    Affiliation: MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Asrat Hailu mail

    hailu_a2004@yahoo.com, a_hailu@hotmail.com

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    X
  • Published: January 16, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002613

About the Authors

Eltahir A. G. Khalil, Brima M. Younis, Ahmed M. Musa, Abuzaid A. Abuzaid, Ahmed M. EL-Hassan
Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Teklu Weldegebreal, William Haleke
Arba Minch Hospital, Regional Health Bureau of SNNP State, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Raymond Omollo, Monique Wasunna, Robert Kimutai
Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) Africa Regional Office, Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Workagegnehu Hailu, Zewdu Hurissa, Sisay Yifru
University of Gondar, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia
Thomas P. C. Dorlo
Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Thomas P. C. Dorlo
Slotervaart Hospital/The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Peter G. Smith, Tansy Edwards
MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Sally Ellis, Manica Balasegaram
Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), Geneva, Switzerland
Gerard J. Schoone
Royal Tropical Institute, KIT Biomedical Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Monique Wasunna, Robert Kimutai
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Asrat Hailu
School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Gilead Sciences, USA, provided the investigational product, AmBisome®. Gilead Sciences and the sponsors, DNDi, have professional collaborations. This collaboration does not alter our adherence to all PLOS NTDs policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AH TE EAGK AMM MB MW SE PGS. Performed the experiments: TW BMY WHal AAA ZH SY WHai RK TPCD GJS. Analyzed the data: TE RO SE PGS AH EAGK RK AMM TPCD GJS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TPCD GJS TE PGS. Wrote the paper: TE AH EAGK AMM PGS MW AMEH SE.