# wombat urls ß PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: Deliberate Attenuation of Chikungunya Virus by Adaptation to Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Infectivity: A Model for Rational Arboviral Vaccine Design
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Research Article

Deliberate Attenuation of Chikungunya Virus by Adaptation to Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Infectivity: A Model for Rational Arboviral Vaccine Design

  • Christina L. Gardner,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jozef Hritz,

    Affiliation: CEITEC, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

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  • Chengqun Sun,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Dana L. Vanlandingham,

    Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine & Pathobiology, Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America

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  • Timothy Y. Song,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Elodie Ghedin,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Stephen Higgs,

    Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine & Pathobiology, Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America

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  • William B. Klimstra,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Kate D. Ryman mail

    ryman@pitt.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: February 20, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002719

About the Authors

Christina L. Gardner, Chengqun Sun, Timothy Y. Song, Elodie Ghedin, William B. Klimstra, Kate D. Ryman
Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Christina L. Gardner, Chengqun Sun, William B. Klimstra, Kate D. Ryman
Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jozef Hritz
CEITEC, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Dana L. Vanlandingham, Stephen Higgs
Department of Diagnostic Medicine & Pathobiology, Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America
Timothy Y. Song, Elodie Ghedin
Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: ryman@pitt.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CLG JH CS DLV SH WBK KDR. Performed the experiments: CLG JH CS DLV TYS. Analyzed the data: CLG JH CS TYS WBK KDR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EG DLV SH. Wrote the paper: CLG JH WBK KDR.