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Table of Contents: July 2009

COVER

Image Credit:
Issue Image
Drug discovery for schistosomiasis.

This scanning electron micrograph of two Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula (approximately 200 x 60 µm) was captured just after mechanical transformation from cercariae (the larval stage infective to humans). These schistosomula form the basis for a medium-throughput screen to identify novel antischistosomals (see article by Abdulla et al. 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000478) recently developed at the UCSF Sandler Center. The image presents a ventral view with the anterior end of each animal at top left. The ventral sucker (large depression) is positioned two-thirds of the way from the anterior and the much smaller mouth opening is approximately a quarter of the way down the length of each animal. Note that each schistosomulum is covered with spines that face backward along the parasite, probably to ease entry through the host's skin once attached.

Image Credit: The image was captured using a Novelx mySEM and is provided courtesy of Stephanie Hopkins and Conor Caffrey of the UCSF Sandler Center.

Editorials

Expert Commentary

Policy Platform

New, Improved Treatments for Chagas Disease: From the R&D Pipeline to the Patients

Isabela Ribeiro, Ann-Marie Sevcsik, Fabiana Alves, Graciela Diap, Robert Don, Michael O. Harhay, Shing Chang, Bernard Pecoul

Symposium

Fatal Human Rabies due to Duvenhage Virus from a Bat in Kenya: Failure of Treatment with Coma-Induction, Ketamine, and Antiviral Drugs

Pieter-Paul A. M. van Thiel, Rob M. A. de Bie, Filip Eftimov, Robert Tepaske, Hans L. Zaaijer, Gerard J. J. van Doornum, Martin Schutten, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Charles B. L. M. Majoie, Eleonora Aronica, Christine Fehlner-Gardiner, Alex I. Wandeler, Piet A. Kager

Review

Differential Regional Immune Response in Chagas Disease

Juliana de Meis, Alexandre Morrot, Désio Aurélio Farias-de-Oliveira, Déa Maria Serra Villa-Verde, Wilson Savino

Research Articles

Attenuation of Toll-Like Receptor Expression and Function in Latent Tuberculosis by Coexistent Filarial Infection with Restoration Following Antifilarial Chemotherapy

Subash Babu, Sajid Q. Bhat, N. Pavan Kumar, R. Anuradha, Paul Kumaran, P. G. Gopi, C. Kolappan, V. Kumaraswami, Thomas B. Nutman

Spatial Re-Establishment Dynamics of Local Populations of Vectors of Chagas Disease

Heinrich zu Dohna, María C. Cecere, Ricardo E. Gürtler, Uriel Kitron, Joel E. Cohen

First-Line Therapy for Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru Using the TLR7 Agonist Imiquimod in Combination with Pentavalent Antimony

Cesar Miranda-Verastegui, GianFranco Tulliano, Theresa W. Gyorkos, Wessmark Calderon, Elham Rahme, Brian Ward, Maria Cruz, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Greg Matlashewski

Trachoma in Western Equatoria State, Southern Sudan: Implications for National Control

Lucia W. Kur, Diana Picon, Obec Adibo, Emily Robinson, Anthony Sabasio, Tansy Edwards, Aggrey Ndyaba, John Rumunu, Karinya Lewis, Mounir Lado, Jan Kolaczinski

Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

Dennis J. Grab, Jose C. Garcia-Garcia, Olga V. Nikolskaia, Yuri V. Kim, Amanda Brown, Carlos A. Pardo, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G. Becker, Brenda A. Wilson, Ana Paula C. de A. Lima, Julio Scharfstein, J. Stephen Dumler

The Role of Human Movement in the Transmission of Vector-Borne Pathogens

Steven T. Stoddard, Amy C. Morrison, Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, Valerie Paz Soldan, Tadeusz J. Kochel, Uriel Kitron, John P. Elder, Thomas W. Scott

Tailoring Consent to Context: Designing an Appropriate Consent Process for a Biomedical Study in a Low Income Setting

Fasil Tekola, Susan J. Bull, Bobbie Farsides, Melanie J. Newport, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N. Rotimi, Gail Davey

Bioluminescent Imaging of Trypanosoma brucei Shows Preferential Testis Dissemination Which May Hamper Drug Efficacy in Sleeping Sickness

Filip Claes, Suman K. Vodnala, Nick van Reet, Nathalie Boucher, Hilda Lunden-Miguel, Theo Baltz, Bruno Maria Goddeeris, Philippe Büscher, Martin E. Rottenberg

Feasibility of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: First Evidence from Studies in Mali and Senegal

Lamine Diawara, Mamadou O. Traoré, Alioune Badji, Yiriba Bissan, Konimba Doumbia, Soula F. Goita, Lassana Konaté, Kalifa Mounkoro, Moussa D. Sarr, Amadou F. Seck, Laurent Toé, Seyni Tourée, Jan H. F. Remme

The Heme Biosynthetic Pathway of the Obligate Wolbachia Endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a Potential Anti-filarial Drug Target

Bo Wu, Jacopo Novelli, Jeremy Foster, Romualdas Vaisvila, Leslie Conway, Jessica Ingram, Mehul Ganatra, Anita U. Rao, Iqbal Hamza, Barton Slatko

Interference with Hemozoin Formation Represents an Important Mechanism of Schistosomicidal Action of Antimalarial Quinoline Methanols

Juliana B. R. Corrêa Soares, Diego Menezes, Marcos A. Vannier-Santos, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira, Giulliana T. Almeida, Thiago M. Venancio, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Vincent K. Zishiri, David Kuter, Roger Hunter, Timothy J. Egan, Marcus F. Oliveira

Drug Discovery for Schistosomiasis: Hit and Lead Compounds Identified in a Library of Known Drugs by Medium-Throughput Phenotypic Screening

Maha-Hamadien Abdulla, Debbie S. Ruelas, Brian Wolff, June Snedecor, Kee-Chong Lim, Fengyun Xu, Adam R. Renslo, Janice Williams, James H. McKerrow, Conor R. Caffrey

Local Suppression of T Cell Responses by Arginase-Induced L-Arginine Depletion in Nonhealing Leishmaniasis

Manuel Modolell, Beak-San Choi, Robert O. Ryan, Maggie Hancock, Richard G. Titus, Tamrat Abebe, Asrat Hailu, Ingrid Müller, Matthew E. Rogers, Charles R. M. Bangham, Markus Munder, Pascale Kropf

Assessment of Yellow Fever Epidemic Risk: An Original Multi-criteria Modeling Approach

Sylvie Briand, Ariel Beresniak, Tim Nguyen, Tajoua Yonli, Gerard Duru, Chantal Kambire, William Perea , The Yellow Fever Risk Assessment Group (YF-RAG)

Comparative Expression Profiling of Leishmania: Modulation in Gene Expression between Species and in Different Host Genetic Backgrounds

Daniel P. Depledge, Krystal J. Evans, Alasdair C. Ivens, Naveed Aziz, Asher Maroof, Paul M. Kaye, Deborah F. Smith

Feasibility, Drug Safety, and Effectiveness of Etiological Treatment Programs for Chagas Disease in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia: 10-Year Experience of Médecins Sans Frontières

Oliver Yun, M. Angeles Lima, Tom Ellman, Wilma Chambi, Sandra Castillo, Laurence Flevaud, Paul Roddy, Fernando Parreño, Pedro Albajar Viñas, Pedro Pablo Palma