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Table of Contents: November 2010

COVER

Pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border walking to the antenatal clinic.

Image Credit: Machteld Boel, Shoklo Malaria Research Unit
Issue Image

Malaria and intestinal worms are prevalent on the Thai-Burmese Border. The WHO recommends deworming during pregnancy in areas where hookworm infections are frequent. There is conflicting evidence on the harms and benefits of intestinal geohelminth infections on the incidence and severity of malaria, and consequently on the risks and benefits of deworming in malaria-affected populations. Indeed, Ascaris and hookworm infections appear to have contrary associations with malaria in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border (see Boel et al., 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000887)

Editorial

Rabies, Still Neglected after 125 Years of Vaccination

Hervé Bourhy, Alice Dautry-Varsat, Peter J. Hotez, Jérôme Salomon

Viewpoints

More Accurate Insight into the Incidence of Human Rabies in Developing Countries through Validated Laboratory Techniques

Laurent Dacheux, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Thiravat Hemachudha, François-Xavier Meslin, Philippe Buchy, Jean-Marc Reynes, Hervé Bourhy

Photo Quiz

Severe, Acute Watery Diarrhea in an Adult

Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Edward T. Ryan

Symposium

All-Oral Antibiotic Treatment for Buruli Ulcer: A Report of Four Patients

Claire L. Gordon, John A. Buntine, John A. Hayman, Caroline J. Lavender, Janet A. M. Fyfe, Patrick Hosking, Mike Starr, Paul D. R. Johnson

Research Articles

Chagas Cardiomyopathy Manifestations and Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes Circulating in Chronic Chagasic Patients

Juan David Ramírez, Felipe Guhl, Lina María Rendón, Fernando Rosas, Jose A. Marin-Neto, Carlos A. Morillo

Targeting the Midgut Secreted PpChit1 Reduces Leishmania major Development in Its Natural Vector, the Sand Fly Phlebotomus papatasi

Iliano V. Coutinho-Abreu, Narinder K. Sharma, Maricela Robles-Murguia, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao

Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever Surveillance, 2006–2008

Sirenda Vong, Virak Khieu, Olivier Glass, Sowath Ly, Veasna Duong, Rekol Huy, Chantha Ngan, Ole Wichmann, G. William Letson, Harold S. Margolis, Philippe Buchy

Metabolomics to Unveil and Understand Phenotypic Diversity between Pathogen Populations

Ruben t'Kindt, Richard A. Scheltema, Andris Jankevics, Kirstyn Brunker, Suman Rijal, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Rainer Breitling, David G. Watson, Graham H. Coombs, Saskia Decuypere

Geographical Distribution of Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Preventive Chemotherapy Strategies in Sierra Leone

Joseph B. Koroma, Jen Peterson, Aiah A. Gbakima, Francis E. Nylander, Foday Sahr, Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães, Yaobi Zhang, Mary H. Hodges

Elimination of Active Trachoma after Two Topical Mass Treatments with Azithromycin 1.5% Eye Drops

Abdou Amza, Pablo Goldschmidt, Ellen Einterz, Pierre Huguet, Celine Olmiere, Philippe Bensaid, Lucienne Bella-Assumpta

Mapping Snakebite Epidemiology in Nicaragua – Pitfalls and Possible Solutions

Erik Hansson, Steven Cuadra, Anna Oudin, Kim de Jong, Emilie Stroh, Kjell Torén, Maria Albin

Observed Reductions in Schistosoma mansoni Transmission from Large-Scale Administration of Praziquantel in Uganda: A Mathematical Modelling Study

Michael D. French, Thomas S. Churcher, Manoj Gambhir, Alan Fenwick, Joanne P. Webster, Narcis B. Kabatereine, Maria-Gloria Basáñez

A Cytochrome b561 with Ferric Reductase Activity from the Parasitic Blood Fluke, Schistosoma japonicum

Amber Glanfield, Donald P. McManus, Danielle J. Smyth, Erica M. Lovas, Alex Loukas, Geoffrey N. Gobert, Malcolm K. Jones

LXR Deficiency Confers Increased Protection against Visceral Leishmania Infection in Mice

Kevin W. Bruhn, Chaitra Marathe, Ana Cláudia Maretti-Mira, Hong Nguyen, Jacquelyn Haskell, Thu Anh Tran, Veena Vanchinathan, Upasna Gaur, Mary E. Wilson, Peter Tontonoz, Noah Craft

Complex Interactions between Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Malaria in Pregnant Women on the Thai-Burmese Border

Machteld Boel, Verena I. Carrara, Marcus Rijken, Stephane Proux, Mathieu Nacher, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Moo Koo Paw, Oh Moo, Hser Gay, Wendi Bailey, Pratap Singhasivanon, Nicholas J. White, François Nosten, Rose McGready

Arthropod Borne Disease: The Leading Cause of Fever in Pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese Border

Rose McGready, Elizabeth A. Ashley, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Saw Oo Tan, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Samuel Jacher Viladpai-nguen, Wilarat Jesadapanpong, Stuart D. Blacksell, Sharon J. Peacock, Daniel H. Paris, Nicholas P. Day, Pratap Singhasivanon, Nicholas J. White, François Nosten

Inference of Population Structure of Leishmania donovani Strains Isolated from Different Ethiopian Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas

Tesfaye Gelanew, Katrin Kuhls, Zewdu Hurissa, Teklu Weldegebreal, Workagegnehu Hailu, Aysheshm Kassahun, Tamrat Abebe, Asrat Hailu, Gabriele Schönian

Best Practices in Dengue Surveillance: A Report from the Asia-Pacific and Americas Dengue Prevention Boards

Mark E. Beatty, Amy Stone, David W. Fitzsimons, Jeffrey N. Hanna, Sai Kit Lam, Sirenda Vong, Maria G. Guzman, Jorge F. Mendez-Galvan, Scott B. Halstead, G. William Letson, Joel Kuritsky, Richard Mahoney, Harold S. Margolis , for The Asia-Pacific and Americas Dengue Prevention Boards Surveillance Working Group

Adaptive Immunity against Leishmania Nucleoside Hydrolase Maps Its C-Terminal Domain as the Target of the CD4+ T Cell–Driven Protective Response

Dirlei Nico, Carla Claser, Gulnara P. Borja-Cabrera, Luiz R. Travassos, Marcos Palatnik, Irene da Silva Soares, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues, Clarisa B. Palatnik-de-Sousa

Arbovirus Detection in Insect Vectors by Rapid, High-Throughput Pyrosequencing

Kimberly A. Bishop-Lilly, Michael J. Turell, Kristin M. Willner, Amy Butani, Nichole M. E. Nolan, Shannon M. Lentz, Arya Akmal, Al Mateczun, Trupti N. Brahmbhatt, Shanmuga Sozhamannan, Chris A. Whitehouse, Timothy D. Read

Control of Tungiasis through Intermittent Application of a Plant-Based Repellent: An Intervention Study in a Resource-Poor Community in Brazil

John Buckendahl, Jörg Heukelbach, Liana Ariza, Judith Dorothea Kehr, Martin Seidenschwang, Hermann Feldmeier

A Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Candidate Genes Regulating Response to Trypanosoma congolense Infection in Mice

Ian Goodhead, Alan Archibald, Peris Amwayi, Andy Brass, John Gibson, Neil Hall, Margaret A. Hughes, Moses Limo, Fuad Iraqi, Stephen J. Kemp, Harry A. Noyes

High Affinity Human Antibody Fragments to Dengue Virus Non-Structural Protein 3

Nicole J. Moreland, Moon Y. F. Tay, Elfin Lim, Prasad N. Paradkar, Danny N. P. Doan, Yin Hoe Yau, Susana Geifman Shochat, Subhash G. Vasudevan

Impact of Schistosome Infection on Plasmodium falciparum Malariometric Indices and Immune Correlates in School Age Children in Burma Valley, Zimbabwe

Davison T. Sangweme, Nicholas Midzi, Sekesai Zinyowera-Mutapuri, Takafira Mduluza, Marie Diener-West, Nirbhay Kumar

Trachoma Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in The Gambia and Tanzania: Baseline Results of a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Emma M. Harding-Esch, Tansy Edwards, Harran Mkocha, Beatriz Munoz, Martin J. Holland, Sarah E. Burr, Ansumana Sillah, Charlotte A. Gaydos, Dianne Stare, David C. W. Mabey, Robin L. Bailey, Sheila K. West , for the PRET Partnership

Targeting Antibiotics to Households for Trachoma Control

Isobel M. Blake, Matthew J. Burton, Anthony W. Solomon, Sheila K. West, María-Gloria Basáñez, Manoj Gambhir, Robin L. Bailey, David C. W. Mabey, Nicholas C. Grassly

Importance of TLR2 on Hepatic Immune and Non-Immune Cells to Attenuate the Strong Inflammatory Liver Response During Trypanosoma cruzi Acute Infection

Eugenio Antonio Carrera-Silva, Natalia Guiñazu, Andrea Pellegrini, Roxana Carolina Cano, Alfredo Arocena, Maria Pilar Aoki, Susana Gea

Role of the gp85/Trans-Sialidases in Trypanosoma cruzi Tissue Tropism: Preferential Binding of a Conserved Peptide Motif to the Vasculature In Vivo

Renata R. Tonelli, Ricardo J. Giordano, Elena Magda Barbu, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Gerson S. Kobayashi, Robert R. Langley, Wadih Arap, Renata Pasqualini, Walter Colli, Maria Júlia M. Alves

LAMP for Human African Trypanosomiasis: A Comparative Study of Detection Formats

Sally L. Wastling, Kim Picozzi, Abbas S. L. Kakembo, Susan C. Welburn

Health Seeking Behaviour and Utilization of Health Facilities for Schistosomiasis-Related Symptoms in Ghana

Anthony Danso-Appiah, Wilma A. Stolk, Kwabena M. Bosompem, Joseph Otchere, Caspar W. N. Looman, J. Dik F. Habbema, Sake J. de Vlas

Quantifying the Burden of Rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness in Urambo District, Tanzania

Lucas E. Matemba, Eric M. Fèvre, Stafford N. Kibona, Kim Picozzi, Sarah Cleaveland, Alexandra P. Shaw, Susan C. Welburn

A Systematic Review of the Frequency of Neurocyticercosis with a Focus on People with Epilepsy

Patrick C. Ndimubanzi, Hélène Carabin, Christine M. Budke, Hai Nguyen, Ying-Jun Qian, Elizabeth Rainwater, Mary Dickey, Stephanie Reynolds, Julie A. Stoner

CD8 Cells of Patients with Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Display Functional Exhaustion: The Latter Is Reversed, In Vitro, by TLR2 Agonists

Joselín Hernández-Ruiz, Norma Salaiza-Suazo, Georgina Carrada, Sofía Escoto, Adriana Ruiz-Remigio, Yvonne Rosenstein, Alejandro Zentella, Ingeborg Becker

Serological Evaluation of Mycobacterium ulcerans Antigens Identified by Comparative Genomics

Sacha J. Pidot, Jessica L. Porter, Laurent Marsollier, Annick Chauty, Florence Migot-Nabias, Cyril Badaut, Angèle Bénard, Marie-Therese Ruf, Torsten Seemann, Paul D. R. Johnson, John K. Davies, Grant A. Jenkin, Gerd Pluschke, Timothy P. Stinear

Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva Triggers Lipid Body Formation and Prostaglandin E2 Production in Murine Macrophages

Théo Araújo-Santos, Deboraci Brito Prates, Bruno Bezerril Andrade, Danielle Oliveira Nascimento, Jorge Clarêncio, Petter F. Entringer, Alan B. Carneiro, Mário A. C. Silva-Neto, José Carlos Miranda, Cláudia Ida Brodskyn, Aldina Barral, Patrícia T. Bozza, Valéria Matos Borges

Cost-Effectiveness of a Chemoprophylactic Intervention with Single Dose Rifampicin in Contacts of New Leprosy Patients

Willemijn J. Idema, Istvan M. Majer, David Pahan, Linda Oskam, Suzanne Polinder, Jan Hendrik Richardus

Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance to Filarial Worm Infection in Culex pipiens pipiens

Michelle L. Michalski, Sara M. Erickson, Lyric C. Bartholomay, Bruce M. Christensen

Additional Haplogroups of Toxoplasma gondii out of Africa: Population Structure and Mouse-Virulence of Strains from Gabon

Aurélien Mercier, Sébastien Devillard, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Henri Bonnabau, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Patrick Durand, Bettina Salle, Daniel Ajzenberg, Marie-Laure Dardé

Risk Factors for Death in Children with Visceral Leishmaniasis

Márcia Jaqueline Alves de Queiroz Sampaio, Nara Vasconcelos Cavalcanti, João Guilherme Bezerra Alves, Mário Jorge Costa Fernandes Filho, Jailson B. Correia