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Table of Contents: May 2011

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Ticks are among the most important vectors of human and animal diseases and surpass all other arthropods in the variety of the transmitted pathogenic organisms. They are capable of transmitting these pathogens by several ways, the main clause being via the injection of saliva during the bite. After many years of debate, and for the first time in vivo, our study (see Reis et al.) demonstrated that I.ricinus is competent for the transmission of Bartonella sp., which are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world.

Editorial

Viewpoints

Meeting Cholera's Challenge to Haiti and the World: A Joint Statement on Cholera Prevention and Care

Paul Farmer, Charles Patrick Almazor, Emily T. Bahnsen, Donna Barry, Junior Bazile, Barry R. Bloom, Niranjan Bose, Thomas Brewer, Stephen B. Calderwood, John D. Clemens, Alejandro Cravioto, Eddy Eustache, Gregory Jérôme, Neha Gupta, Jason B. Harris, Howard H. Hiatt, Cassia Holstein, Peter J. Hotez, Louise C. Ivers, Vanessa B. Kerry, Serena P. Koenig, Regina C. LaRocque, Fernet Léandre, Wesler Lambert, Evan Lyon, John J. Mekalanos, Joia S. Mukherjee, Cate Oswald, Jean-William Pape, Anany Gretchko Prosper, Regina Rabinovich, Maxi Raymonville, Jean-Renold Réjouit, Laurence J. Ronan, Mark L. Rosenberg, Edward T. Ryan, Jeffrey D. Sachs, David A. Sack, Claude Surena, Arjun A. Suri, Ralph Ternier, Matthew K. Waldor, David Walton, Jonathan L. Weigel

Expert Commentary

A New Approach to Monitoring Dengue Activity

Lawrence C. Madoff, David N. Fisman, Taha Kass-Hout

Policy Platform

Research and Capacity Building for Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases: The Need for a Different Approach

Thomas Kariuki, Richard Phillips, Sammy Njenga, Ole F. Olesen, Paul R. Klatser, Riccardo Porro, Sarah Lock, Maria Hermínia Cabral, Martina Gliber, Detlef Hanne

Review

Regulatory T Cells Phenotype in Different Clinical Forms of Chagas' Disease

Fernanda Fortes de Araújo, Danielle Marquete Vitelli-Avelar, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Paulo Renato Zuquim Antas, Juliana Assis Silva Gomes, Renato Sathler-Avelar, Manoel Otávio Costa Rocha, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Rosa Teixeira Pinho, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho

Research Articles

The Prevalence of Blinding Trachoma in Northern States of Sudan

Awad Hassan, Jeremiah M. Ngondi, Jonathan D. King, Balgesa E. Elshafie, Ghada Al Ginaid, Mazin Elsanousi, Zeinab Abdalla, Nabil Aziz, Dieudonne Sankara, Victoria Simms, Elizabeth A. Cromwell, Paul M. Emerson, Kamal H. Binnawi

Effect of BMAP-28 Antimicrobial Peptides on Leishmania major Promastigote and Amastigote Growth: Role of Leishmanolysin in Parasite Survival

Miriam A. Lynn, Jason Kindrachuk, Alexandra K. Marr, Håvard Jenssen, Nelly Panté, Melissa R. Elliott, Scott Napper, Robert E. Hancock, W. Robert McMaster

Clonal Differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) Recovered from Children and Animals Living in Close Contact in The Gambia

Michel M. Dione, Usman N. Ikumapayi, Debasish Saha, Nuredin I. Mohammed, Stanny Geerts, Margareta Ieven, Richard A. Adegbola, Martin Antonio

Multiple Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains Are Associated with Disease Outbreaks in Sudan, 2008–2009

Imadeldin E. Aradaib, Bobbie R. Erickson, Mubarak S. Karsany, Marina L. Khristova, Rehab M. Elageb, Mohamed E. H. Mohamed, Stuart T. Nichol

Inconsistent Protective Efficacy and Marked Polymorphism Limits the Value of Schistosoma japonicum Tetraspanin-2 as a Vaccine Target

Wenbao Zhang, Jun Li, Mary Duke, Malcolm K. Jones, Ling Kuang, Jianfeng Zhang, David Blair, Yuesheng Li, Donald P. McManus

Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia

Natalia M. Tavares, Robson A. Silva, Dirceu J. Costa, Maiana A. Pitombo, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, José C. Miranda, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Aldina Barral, Camila I. de Oliveira, Manoel Barral-Netto, Claudia Brodskyn

Loxosceles gaucho Venom-Induced Acute Kidney Injury – In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

Rui V. Lucato Jr, Regina C. R. M. Abdulkader, Katia C. Barbaro, Glória E. Mendes, Isac Castro, Maria A. S. F. Baptista, Patrícia M. Cury, Denise M. C. Malheiros, Nestor Schor, Luis Yu, Emmanuel A. Burdmann

Vector Competence of the Tick Ixodes ricinus for Transmission of Bartonella birtlesii

Caroline Reis, Martine Cote, Danielle Le Rhun, Benoit Lecuelle, Michael L. Levin, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Sarah I. Bonnet

The Early Clinical Features of Dengue in Adults: Challenges for Early Clinical Diagnosis

Jenny G. H. Low, Adrian Ong, Li Kiang Tan, Shera Chaterji, Angelia Chow, Wen Yan Lim, Koon Wui Lee, Robert Chua, Choon Rong Chua, Sharon W. S. Tan, Yin Bun Cheung, Martin L. Hibberd, Subhash G. Vasudevan, Lee-Ching Ng, Yee Sin Leo, Eng Eong Ooi

First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marin, Alejandra de-la-Torre, Edith Angel-Muller, Jorge Rubio, Jaime Arenas, Elkin Osorio, Lilian Nuñez, Lyda Pinzon, Luis Carlos Mendez-Cordoba, Agustin Bustos, Isabel de-la-Hoz, Pedro Silva, Monica Beltran, Leonor Chacon, Martha Marrugo, Cristina Manjarres, Hernando Baquero, Fabiana Lora, Elizabeth Torres, Oscar Elias Zuluaga, Monica Estrada, Lacides Moscote, Myriam Teresa Silva, Raul Rivera, Angie Molina, Shirley Najera, Antonio Sanabria, Maria Luisa Ramirez, Claudia Alarcon, Natalia Restrepo, Alejandra Falla, Tailandia Rodriguez, Giovanny Castaño

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma

Cindy Fevre, Virginie Passet, Alexis Deletoile, Valérie Barbe, Lionel Frangeul, Ana S. Almeida, Philippe Sansonetti, Régis Tournebize, Sylvain Brisse

Polyparasitism Is Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Marine Sentinel Species

Amanda K. Gibson, Stephen Raverty, Dyanna M. Lambourn, Jessica Huggins, Spencer L. Magargal, Michael E. Grigg

Clinical Manifestations Associated with Neurocysticercosis: A Systematic Review

Hélène Carabin, Patrick Cyaga Ndimubanzi, Christine M. Budke, Hai Nguyen, Yingjun Qian, Linda Demetry Cowan, Julie Ann Stoner, Elizabeth Rainwater, Mary Dickey

Host Alternation Is Necessary to Maintain the Genome Stability of Rift Valley Fever Virus

Sara Moutailler, Benjamin Roche, Jean-Michel Thiberge, Valérie Caro, François Rougeon, Anna-Bella Failloux

Genetic Reconstruction of Protozoan rRNA Decoding Sites Provides a Rationale for Paromomycin Activity against Leishmania and Trypanosoma

Sven N. Hobbie, Marcel Kaiser, Sebastian Schmidt, Dmitri Shcherbakov, Tanja Janusic, Reto Brun, Erik C. Böttger

Latent Microsporidial Infection in Immunocompetent Individuals – A Longitudinal Study

Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč, Zuzana Kučerová, Dana Květoňová, Kamila Saková

Crystal Structures of T. b. rhodesiense Adenosine Kinase Complexed with Inhibitor and Activator: Implications for Catalysis and Hyperactivation

Sabine Kuettel, Jason Greenwald, Dirk Kostrewa, Shaheen Ahmed, Leonardo Scapozza, Remo Perozzo

Gene Expression Profiling and Molecular Characterization of Antimony Resistance in Leishmania amazonensis

Rubens L. do Monte-Neto, Adriano C. Coelho, Frédéric Raymond, Danielle Légaré, Jacques Corbeil, Maria N. Melo, Frédéric Frézard, Marc Ouellette

Tissue and Stage-Specific Distribution of Wolbachia in Brugia malayi

Kerstin Fischer, Wandy L. Beatty, Daojun Jiang, Gary J. Weil, Peter U. Fischer

Comparison of Argentinean Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus Non-Epidemic and Epidemic Strain Infections in an Avian Model

Luis Adrián Diaz, Nicole M. Nemeth, Richard A. Bowen, Walter R. Almiron, Marta S. Contigiani

Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

Pedro L. Moro, Christine M. Budke, Peter M. Schantz, Julio Vasquez, Saul J. Santivañez, Jaime Villavicencio

The Use of a Mobile Laboratory Unit in Support of Patient Management and Epidemiological Surveillance during the 2005 Marburg Outbreak in Angola

Allen Grolla, Steven M. Jones, Lisa Fernando, James E. Strong, Ute Ströher, Peggy Möller, Janusz T. Paweska, Felicity Burt, Pedro Pablo Palma, Armand Sprecher, Pierre Formenty, Cathy Roth, Heinz Feldmann

Orientia tsutsugamushi Stimulates an Original Gene Expression Program in Monocytes: Relationship with Gene Expression in Patients with Scrub Typhus

Wiwit Tantibhedhyangkul, Thanavadee Prachason, Duangdao Waywa, Adil El Filali, Eric Ghigo, Wanna Thongnoppakhun, Didier Raoult, Yupin Suputtamongkol, Christian Capo, Chanin Limwongse, Jean-Louis Mege

Ziehl-Neelsen Staining Technique Can Diagnose Paragonimiasis

Günther Slesak, Saythong Inthalad, Phadsana Basy, Dalaphone Keomanivong, Ounheaun Phoutsavath, Somchaivang Khampoui, Aude Grosrenaud, Vincent Amstutz, Hubert Barennes, Yves Buisson, Peter Odermatt

Testing the Efficacy of a Multi-Component DNA-Prime/DNA-Boost Vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Dogs

José E. Aparicio-Burgos, Laucel Ochoa-García, José Antonio Zepeda-Escobar, Shivali Gupta, Monisha Dhiman, José Simón Martínez, Roberto Montes de Oca-Jiménez, Margarita Val Arreola, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego, Juan C. Vázquez-Chagoyán, Nisha Jain Garg

Schistosoma haematobium Treatment in 1–5 Year Old Children: Safety and Efficacy of the Antihelminthic Drug Praziquantel

Francisca Mutapi, Nadine Rujeni, Claire Bourke, Kate Mitchell, Laura Appleby, Norman Nausch, Nicholas Midzi, Takafira Mduluza

Preclinical Evaluation of Caprylic Acid-Fractionated IgG Antivenom for the Treatment of Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) Envenoming in Papua New Guinea

Mariángela Vargas, Alvaro Segura, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Ricardo Estrada, Maykel Cerdas, Owen Paiva, Teatulohi Matainaho, Simon D. Jensen, Kenneth D. Winkel, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez, David J. Williams

Comparative Gene Expression Analysis throughout the Life Cycle of Leishmania braziliensis: Diversity of Expression Profiles among Clinical Isolates

Vanessa Adaui, Denis Castillo, Mirko Zimic, Andres Gutierrez, Saskia Decuypere, Manu Vanaerschot, Simonne De Doncker, Kathy Schnorbusch, Ilse Maes, Gert Van der Auwera, Louis Maes, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Jorge Arevalo, Jean-Claude Dujardin

Recent Food Shortage Is Associated with Leprosy Disease in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

Sabiena G. Feenstra, Quamrun Nahar, David Pahan, Linda Oskam, Jan Hendrik Richardus

Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

Yupin Suputtamongkol, Nalinee Premasathian, Kid Bhumimuang, Duangdao Waywa, Surasak Nilganuwong, Ekkapun Karuphong, Thanomsak Anekthananon, Darawan Wanachiwanawin, Saowaluk Silpasakorn

Use of Saliva for Early Dengue Diagnosis

Grace Yap, Bijon Kumar Sil, Lee-Ching Ng

Tacaribe Virus but Not Junin Virus Infection Induces Cytokine Release from Primary Human Monocytes and Macrophages

Allison Groseth, Thomas Hoenen, Michaela Weber, Svenja Wolff, Astrid Herwig, Andreas Kaufmann, Stephan Becker

Seasonality and Prevalence of Leishmania major Infection in Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemaire from Two Neighboring Villages in Central Mali

Jennifer M. Anderson, Sibiry Samake, Giovanna Jaramillo-Gutierrez, Ibrahim Sissoko, Cheick A. Coulibaly, Bourama Traoré, Constance Soucko, Boubacar Guindo, Dansine Diarra, Michael P. Fay, Phillip G. Lawyer, Seydou Doumbia, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi

Population Structure of Staphylococcus aureus from Remote African Babongo Pygmies

Frieder Schaumburg, Robin Köck, Alexander W. Friedrich, Solange Soulanoudjingar, Ulysse Ateba Ngoa, Christof von Eiff, Saadou Issifou, Peter G. Kremsner, Mathias Herrmann, Georg Peters, Karsten Becker

Mining a Cathepsin Inhibitor Library for New Antiparasitic Drug Leads

Kenny K. H. Ang, Joseline Ratnam, Jiri Gut, Jennifer Legac, Elizabeth Hansell, Zachary B. Mackey, Katarzyna M. Skrzypczynska, Anjan Debnath, Juan C. Engel, Philip J. Rosenthal, James H. McKerrow, Michelle R. Arkin, Adam R. Renslo

First Report of Colonies of Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Paraguayan Chaco, Using a Trained Dog

Miriam Rolón, María Celeste Vega, Fabiola Román, Ana Gómez, Antonieta Rojas de Arias

Interruption and Defaulting of Multidrug Therapy against Leprosy: Population-Based Study in Brazil's Savannah Region

Jorg Heukelbach, Olga André Chichava, Alexcian Rodrigues de Oliveira, Kathrin Häfner, Friederike Walther, Carlos Henrique Morais de Alencar, Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr., Adriana Cavalcante Ferreira, Liana Ariza

Microarray-Based Analysis of Differential Gene Expression between Infective and Noninfective Larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis

Roshan Ramanathan, Sudhir Varma, José M. C. Ribeiro, Timothy G. Myers, Thomas J. Nolan, David Abraham, James B. Lok, Thomas B. Nutman

A New Approach to Dengue Fatal Cases Diagnosis: NS1 Antigen Capture in Tissues

Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Hermann Gonçalves Schatzmayr, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Daniel Limonta, Flavia Barreto dos Santos