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Table of Contents: May 2012

COVER

North Pioa Mountain and coastal villages, Tutuila, American Samoa.

Image Credit: Colleen Lau and John DePasquale
Issue Image

Also known as Rainmaker Mountain, North Pioa Mountain is the fourth highest peak in American Samoa, and has an average annual rainfall of 5,000 mm. This idyllic tropical environment is one of many in which leptospirosis has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease. Risk factors for infection include high rainfall, flooding, urbanisation, poor sanitation, contact with animals, and environmental degradation. Accurate health data are often not available, making it difficult to develop and target public health intervention strategies. Lau et al. therefore devised a system of estimating infection risk based on environmental factors, and produced the first predictive risk maps for leptospirosis. Such maps have been successfully used to guide public health interventions for many other diseases, and are now available to help control this potentially lethal threat in American Samoa.

Editorial

Chagas Disease: “The New HIV/AIDS of the Americas”

Peter J. Hotez, Eric Dumonteil, Laila Woc-Colburn, Jose A. Serpa, Sarah Bezek, Morven S. Edwards, Camden J. Hallmark, Laura W. Musselwhite, Benjamin J. Flink, Maria Elena Bottazzi

Viewpoints

Neurocysticercosis: Neglected but Not Forgotten

Christina M. Coyle, Siddhartha Mahanty, Joseph R. Zunt, Mitchell T. Wallin, Paul T. Cantey, A. Clinton White Jr., Seth E. O'Neal, Jose A. Serpa, Paul M. Southern, Patricia Wilkins, Anne E. McCarthy, Elizabeth S. Higgs, Theodore E. Nash

A Poor-Quality Generic Drug for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Case Report and Appeal

Thomas P. C. Dorlo, Teunis A. Eggelte, Gerard J. Schoone, Peter J. de Vries, Jos H. Beijnen

Review

Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: How Can We Prevent a New Epidemic?

José A. Ruiz-Postigo, José R. Franco, Mounir Lado, Pere P. Simarro

Research Articles

Genetic Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs in Wild Triatoma infestans from Bolivia: Predominance of TcI

Simone Frédérique Brenière, Claudia Aliaga, Etienne Waleckx, Rosio Buitrago, Renata Salas, Christian Barnabé, Michel Tibayrenc, François Noireau

Use of Oxfendazole to Control Porcine Cysticercosis in a High-Endemic Area of Mozambique

Alberto Pondja, Luís Neves, James Mlangwa, Sónia Afonso, José Fafetine, Arve Lee Willingham III, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Maria Vang Johansen

Regulatory T Cells in Human Lymphatic Filariasis: Stronger Functional Activity in Microfilaremics

Linda J. Wammes, Firdaus Hamid, Aprilianto E. Wiria, Heri Wibowo, Erliyani Sartono, Rick M. Maizels, Hermelijn H. Smits, Taniawati Supali, Maria Yazdanbakhsh

Optimizing the Colour and Fabric of Targets for the Control of the Tsetse Fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes

Jenny M. Lindh, Parikshit Goswami, Richard S. Blackburn, Sarah E. J. Arnold, Glyn A. Vale, Mike J. Lehane, Steve J. Torr

A Model of DENV-3 Infection That Recapitulates Severe Disease and Highlights the Importance of IFN-γ in Host Resistance to Infection

Vivian V. Costa, Caio T. Fagundes, Deborah F. Valadão, Daniel Cisalpino, Ana Carolina F. Dias, Kátia D. Silveira, Lucas M. Kangussu, Thiago V. Ávila, Maria Rosa Q. Bonfim, Daniela Bonaventura, Tarcília A. Silva, Lirlândia P. Sousa, Milene A. Rachid, Leda Q. Vieira, Gustavo B. Menezes, Ana Maria de Paula, Alena Atrasheuskaya, George Ignatyev, Mauro M. Teixeira, Danielle G. Souza

Experimental Induction of Paromomycin Resistance in Antimony-Resistant Strains of L. donovani: Outcome Dependent on In Vitro Selection Protocol

Sarah Hendrickx, Raquel Andrea Inocêncio da Luz, Vasundhra Bhandari, Kristel Kuypers, Craig D. Shaw, Julien Lonchamp, Poonam Salotra, Katharine Carter, Shyam Sundar, Suman Rijal, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Paul Cos, Louis Maes

The Sigma Class Glutathione Transferase from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica

E. James LaCourse, Samirah Perally, Russell M. Morphew, Joseph V. Moxon, Mark Prescott, David J. Dowling, Sandra M. O'Neill, Anja Kipar, Udo Hetzel, Elizabeth Hoey, Rafael Zafra, Leandro Buffoni, José Pérez Arévalo, Peter M. Brophy

Leptospirosis in American Samoa – Estimating and Mapping Risk Using Environmental Data

Colleen L. Lau, Archie C. A. Clements, Chris Skelly, Annette J. Dobson, Lee D. Smythe, Philip Weinstein

Disease Severity in Patients Infected with Leishmania mexicana Relates to IL-1β

Edith A. Fernández-Figueroa, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Valeria Espinosa-Mateos, Karol Carrillo-Sánchez, Norma Salaiza-Suazo, Georgina Carrada-Figueroa, Santiago March-Mifsut, Ingeborg Becker

Improved Canine and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis Immunodiagnosis Using Combinations of Synthetic Peptides in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Míriam Maria Costa, Marcos Penido, Mariana Silva dos Santos, Daniel Doro, Eloísa de Freitas, Marilene Susan Marques Michalick, Gabriel Grimaldi, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Ana Paula Fernandes

Elevated Plasma IL-6 Associates with Increased Risk of Advanced Fibrosis and Cholangiocarcinoma in Individuals Infected by Opisthorchis viverrini

Banchob Sripa, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Eimorn Mairiang, Thewarach Laha, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Maria Victoria Periago, Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi, Ponlapat Yonglitthipagon, Jason Mulvenna, Paul J. Brindley, Alex Loukas, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Drug Susceptibility in Leishmania Isolates Following Miltefosine Treatment in Cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

Vasundhra Bhandari, Arpita Kulshrestha, Deepak Kumar Deep, Olivia Stark, Vijay Kumar Prajapati, V. Ramesh, Shyam Sundar, Gabriele Schonian, Jean Claude Dujardin, Poonam Salotra

Junín Virus Infection Activates the Type I Interferon Pathway in a RIG-I-Dependent Manner

Cheng Huang, Olga A. Kolokoltsova, Nadezdha E. Yun, Alexey V. Seregin, Allison L. Poussard, Aida G. Walker, Allan R. Brasier, Yingxin Zhao, Bing Tian, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Slobodan Paessler

Salivary Gland Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus sergenti, Vectors of Leishmaniasis

Iva Rohoušová, Sreenath Subrahmanyam, Věra Volfová, Jianbing Mu, Petr Volf, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Ryan C. Jochim

Modeling the Control of Trypanosomiasis Using Trypanocides or Insecticide-Treated Livestock

John W. Hargrove, Rachid Ouifki, Damian Kajunguri, Glyn A. Vale, Stephen J. Torr

In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of a Palladacycle Complex on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

Carolina de Siqueira Paladi, Isabella Aparecida Salerno Pimentel, Simone Katz, Rodrigo L. O. R. Cunha, Wagner Alves de Souza Judice, Antonio C. F. Caires, Clara Lúcia Barbiéri

Characterisation of the Native Lipid Moiety of Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B

Gonzalo Obal, Ana Lía Ramos, Valeria Silva, Analía Lima, Carlos Batthyany, María Inés Bessio, Fernando Ferreira, Gustavo Salinas, Ana María Ferreira

Dengue-1 Envelope Protein Domain III along with PELC and CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Synergistically Enhances Immune Responses

Chen-Yi Chiang, Ming-Hsi Huang, Chun-Hsiang Hsieh, Mei-Yu Chen, Hsueh-Hung Liu, Jy-Ping Tsai, Yi-Shiuan Li, Ching-Yun Chang, Shih-Jen Liu, Pele Chong, Chih-Hsiang Leng, Hsin-Wei Chen

Lower Richness of Small Wild Mammal Species and Chagas Disease Risk

Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Valdirene dos Santos Lima, Kerla Joeline Lima Monteiro, Joel Carlos Rodrigues Otaviano, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira da Silva, Ana Maria Jansen

Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010–2011

Devendra T. Mourya, Pragya D. Yadav, Anita M. Shete, Yogesh K. Gurav, Chandrashekhar G. Raut, Ramesh S. Jadi, Shailesh D. Pawar, Stuart T. Nichol, Akhilesh C. Mishra

Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection after Drug Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Tie-Wu Jia, Sara Melville, Jürg Utzinger, Charles H. King, Xiao-Nong Zhou

High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics

Carolina Piñero, Federico Gury Dohmen, Fernando Beltran, Leila Martinez, Laura Novaro, Susana Russo, Gustavo Palacios, Daniel M. Cisterna

Dengue Infection and Miscarriage: A Prospective Case Control Study

Peng Chiong Tan, May Zaw Soe, Khaing Si Lay, Seok Mui Wang, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Siti Zawiah Omar

Proteomic Analysis of the Cyst Stage of Entamoeba histolytica

Ibne Karim M. Ali, Rashidul Haque, Abdullah Siddique, Mamun Kabir, Nicholas E. Sherman, Sean A. Gray, Gerard A. Cangelosi, William A. Petri Jr.

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Heart Tissue and Nitric Oxide in Serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Rhesus Monkeys: Association with Heart Injury

Cristiano Marcelo Espinola Carvalho, Jaline Coutinho Silverio, Andrea Alice da Silva, Isabela Resende Pereira, Janice Mery Chicarino Coelho, Constança Carvalho Britto, Otacílio Cruz Moreira, Renato Sergio Marchevsky, Sergio Salles Xavier, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Maria da Glória Bonecini-Almeida, Joseli Lannes-Vieira

Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals a Lack Of Synergy between Nifurtimox and Eflornithine against Trypanosoma brucei

Isabel M. Vincent, Darren J. Creek, Karl Burgess, Debra J. Woods, Richard J. S. Burchmore, Michael P. Barrett

Severe Dengue Is Associated with Consumption of von Willebrand Factor and Its Cleaving Enzyme ADAMTS-13

Kis Djamiatun, Andre J. A. M. van der Ven, Philip G. de Groot, Sultana M. H. Faradz, D. Hapsari, Wil M. V. Dolmans, Silvie Sebastian, Rob Fijnheer, Quirijn de Mast

Cultivation-Independent Methods Reveal Differences among Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Triatomine Vectors of Chagas Disease

Fabio Faria da Mota, Lourena Pinheiro Marinho, Carlos José de Carvalho Moreira, Marli Maria Lima, Cícero Brasileiro Mello, Eloi Souza Garcia, Nicolas Carels, Patricia Azambuja

Linking Oviposition Site Choice to Offspring Fitness in Aedes aegypti: Consequences for Targeted Larval Control of Dengue Vectors

Jacklyn Wong, Amy C. Morrison, Steven T. Stoddard, Helvio Astete, Yui Yin Chu, Imaan Baseer, Thomas W. Scott

Temporal Dynamics and Impact of Climate Factors on the Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Tunisia

Amine Toumi, Sadok Chlif, Jihene Bettaieb, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Aicha Boukthir, Zaher E. Ahmadi, Afif Ben Salah

Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, Reduction of Intestinal Parasite Load, and Cognitive Test Score Improvements in School-Aged Children

Amara E. Ezeamama, Stephen T. McGarvey, Joseph Hogan, Kate L. Lapane, David C. Bellinger, Luz P. Acosta, Tjalling Leenstra, Remigio M. Olveda, Jonathan D. Kurtis, Jennifer F. Friedman

Development of a Humanized Antibody with High Therapeutic Potential against Dengue Virus Type 2

Pi-Chun Li, Mei-Ying Liao, Ping-Chang Cheng, Jian-Jong Liang, I-Ju Liu, Chien-Yu Chiu, Yi-Ling Lin, Gwong-Jen J. Chang, Han-Chung Wu

Correlation of Serotype-Specific Dengue Virus Infection with Clinical Manifestations

Eric S. Halsey, Morgan A. Marks, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Victor Fiestas, Luis Suarez, Jorge Vargas, Nicolas Aguayo, Cesar Madrid, Carlos Vimos, Tadeusz J. Kochel, V. Alberto Laguna-Torres

Infection and Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Viruses Lacking the NSs and/or NSm Genes in Mosquitoes: Potential Role for NSm in Mosquito Infection

Mary B. Crabtree, Rebekah J. Kent Crockett, Brian H. Bird, Stuart T. Nichol, Bobbie Rae Erickson, Brad J. Biggerstaff, Kalanthe Horiuchi, Barry R. Miller

The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Rabies in China

Jinning Yu, Hao Li, Qing Tang, Simon Rayner, Na Han, Zhenyang Guo, Haizhou Liu, James Adams, Wei Fang, Xiaoyan Tao, Shumei Wang, Guodong Liang

Diabetes with Hypertension as Risk Factors for Adult Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in a Predominantly Dengue Serotype 2 Epidemic: A Case Control Study

Junxiong Pang, Agus Salim, Vernon J. Lee, Martin L. Hibberd, Kee Seng Chia, Yee Sin Leo, David C. Lye