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Table of Contents: May 2014

COVER

Toxoplasma gondii: linking land and sea.

Image Credit: Elizabeth VanWormer, One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis
Issue Image

A bobcat crossing the path of a remotely triggered field camera looks out over a coastal California marsh that connects to sea otter habitat. Environmental transmission of the globally distributed zoonotic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, has caused severe illness in people and animals, including California sea otters. Wild and domestic felids shed hardy T. gondii oocysts, which can infect hosts in diverse terrestrial environments and be carried in freshwater runoff to aquatic systems. See VanWormer et al.

Editorial

Viewpoints

The Gulf Coast: A New American Underbelly of Tropical Diseases and Poverty

Peter J. Hotez, Kristy O. Murray, Pierre Buekens

From Haiti to the Amazon: Public Health Issues Related to the Recent Immigration of Haitians to Brazil

Tom Rawlinson, André Machado Siqueira, Gilberto Fontes, Renata Paula Lima Beltrão, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marilaine Martins, Edson Fidelis Silva-Júnior, Maria Paula Gomes Mourão, Bernardino Albuquerque, Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda

Policy Platform

Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Burundi: Partnerships, Achievements, Challenges, and Lessons Learned after Four Years of Programme Implementation

Onésime Ndayishimiye, Giuseppina Ortu, Ricardo J. Soares Magalhaes, Archie Clements, Johan Willems, Jane Whitton, Warren Lancaster, Adrian Hopkins, Alan Fenwick

Historical Profiles and Perspectives

Sterile Insects to Enhance Agricultural Development: The Case of Sustainable Tsetse Eradication on Unguja Island, Zanzibar, Using an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Approach

Marc J. B. Vreysen, Khalfan Saleh, Furaha Mramba, Andrew Parker, Udo Feldmann, Victor A. Dyck, Atway Msangi, Jérémy Bouyer

Building Endogenous Capacity for the Management of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Africa: The Pioneering Role of ICIPE

Daniel K. Masiga, Lilian Igweta, Rajinder Saini, James P. Ochieng'-Odero, Christian Borgemeister

From Innovation to Application

Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute Cryobank for Human and Animal Trypanosome Isolates to Support Research: Opportunities and Challenges

Grace A. Murilla, Kariuki Ndung'u, John K. Thuita, Purity K. Gitonga, Daniel T. Kahiga, Joanna E. Auma, Johnson O. Ouma, Jane J. Rutto, Joseph M. Ndung'u

Parasite Load Decrease during Application of a Safe and Easily Applied Antileishmanial Aminoglycoside Cream

Afif Ben Salah, Amor Zaâtour, Nathalie Ben Messaoud, Abdelhamid Kidar, Philip L. Smith, Karen M. Kopydlowski, Mara Kreishman-Deitrick, Carl J. Nielsen, Anne Novitt-Moreno, Janet H. Ransom, Gloria Morizot, Max Grogl, Pierre A. Buffet

Symposium

Kala-azar in Pregnancy in Mymensingh, Bangladesh: A Social Autopsy

Kazi Mizanur Rahman, Anna Olsen, David Harley, Colin D. Butler, Dinesh Mondal, Stephen P. Luby, Adrian C. Sleigh

Research Articles

A Dual Drug Sensitive L. major Induces Protection without Lesion in C57BL/6 Mice

Noushin Davoudi, Ali Khamesipour, Fereidoun Mahboudi, W. Robert McMaster

Bacteriophage-Fused Peptides for Serodiagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis

Nágilla Daliane Feliciano, Vanessa da Silva Ribeiro, Fabiana de Almeida Araújo Santos, Patricia Tiemi Fujimura, Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz

Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Two New Leprosy Skin Test Antigens: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study

Becky L. Rivoire, Nathan A. Groathouse, Stephen TerLouw, Kapil Dev Neupane, Chaman Ranjit, Bishwa Raj Sapkota, Saraswoti Khadge, Chatra B. Kunwar, Murdo Macdonald, Rachel Hawksworth, Min B. Thapa, Deanna A. Hagge, Melinda Tibbals, Carol Smith, Tina Dube, Dewei She, Mark Wolff, Eric Zhou, Mamodikoe Makhene, Robin Mason, Christine Sizemore, Patrick J. Brennan

Seroprevalence and Modifiable Risk Factors for Toxocara spp. in Brazilian Schoolchildren

Alex J. F. Cassenote, Alba R. de Abreu Lima, José M. Pinto Neto, Guita Rubinsky-Elefant

Using Molecular Epidemiology to Track Toxoplasma gondii from Terrestrial Carnivores to Marine Hosts: Implications for Public Health and Conservation

Elizabeth VanWormer, Melissa A. Miller, Patricia A. Conrad, Michael E. Grigg, Daniel Rejmanek, Tim E. Carpenter, Jonna A. K. Mazet

The Concentrations of Ambient Burkholderia Pseudomallei during Typhoon Season in Endemic Area of Melioidosis in Taiwan

Ya-Lei Chen, Yu-Chuan Yen, Chun-Yuh Yang, Min Sheng Lee, Chi-Kung Ho, Kristina D. Mena, Peng-Yau Wang, Pei-Shih Chen

Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

Pearl M. Swe, Martha Zakrzewski, Andrew Kelly, Lutz Krause, Katja Fischer

Exposure to Multiple Parasites Is Associated with the Prevalence of Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa

Gathoni Kamuyu, Christian Bottomley, James Mageto, Brett Lowe, Patricia P. Wilkins, John C. Noh, Thomas B. Nutman, Anthony K. Ngugi, Rachael Odhiambo, Ryan G. Wagner, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kenneth Ae-Ngibise, Honorati Masanja, Faith H. A. Osier, Peter Odermatt, Charles R. Newton , on behalf of the Study of Epidemiology of Epilepsy in Demographic Sites (SEEDS) group

Prospective Study of Leptospirosis Transmission in an Urban Slum Community: Role of Poor Environment in Repeated Exposures to the Leptospira Agent

Ridalva D. M. Felzemburgh, Guilherme S. Ribeiro, Federico Costa, Renato B. Reis, José E. Hagan, Astrid X. T. O. Melendez, Deborah Fraga, Francisco S. Santana, Sharif Mohr, Balbino L. dos Santos, Adriano Q. Silva, Andréia C. Santos, Romy R. Ravines, Wagner S. Tassinari, Marília S. Carvalho, Mitermayer G. Reis, Albert I. Ko

Impact of ASHA Training on Active Case Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, India

Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Ravindra Nath Pandey, Krishna Pandey, Varsha Singh, Vijay Kumar, Greg Matlashewski, Pradeep Das

Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

Raquel Lovato, Angel Guevara, Ronald Guderian, Roberto Proaño, Thomas Unnasch, Hipatia Criollo, Hassan K. Hassan, Charles D. Mackenzie

Benznidazole Biotransformation and Multiple Targets in Trypanosoma cruzi Revealed by Metabolomics

Andrea Trochine, Darren J. Creek, Paula Faral-Tello, Michael P. Barrett, Carlos Robello

Miltefosine and Antimonial Drug Susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia Species and Populations in Regions of High Transmission in Colombia

Olga Lucía Fernández, Yira Diaz-Toro, Clemencia Ovalle, Liliana Valderrama, Sandra Muvdi, Isabel Rodríguez, María Adelaida Gomez, Nancy Gore Saravia

Scabies Mite Inactive Serine Proteases Are Potent Inhibitors of the Human Complement Lectin Pathway

Simone L. Reynolds, Robert N. Pike, Angela Mika, Anna M. Blom, Andreas Hofmann, Lakshmi C. Wijeyewickrema, Dave Kemp, Katja Fischer

High Parasitological Failure Rate of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Sodium Stibogluconate among HIV Co-infected Adults in Ethiopia

Ermias Diro, Lutgarde Lynen, Rezika Mohammed, Marleen Boelaert, Asrat Hailu, Johan van Griensven

Sarcocystis nesbitti Causes Acute, Relapsing Febrile Myositis with a High Attack Rate: Description of a Large Outbreak of Muscular Sarcocystosis in Pangkor Island, Malaysia, 2012

Claire M. Italiano, Kum Thong Wong, Sazaly AbuBakar, Yee Ling Lau, Norlisah Ramli, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Maria Kahar Bador, Chong Tin Tan

Distantiae Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A New Epidemiological Feature of Acute Chagas Disease in Brazil

Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Daniele Bilac, Vitor Antônio Louzada de Araújo, Sócrates Fraga da Costa Neto, Elias Seixas Lorosa, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira da Silva, Ana Maria Jansen

Helminth Colonization Is Associated with Increased Diversity of the Gut Microbiota

Soo Ching Lee, Mei San Tang, Yvonne A. L. Lim, Seow Huey Choy, Zachary D. Kurtz, Laura M. Cox, Uma Mahesh Gundra, Ilseung Cho, Richard Bonneau, Martin J. Blaser, Kek Heng Chua, P'ng Loke

One Health: Past Successes and Future Challenges in Three African Contexts

Anna L. Okello, Kevin Bardosh, James Smith, Susan C. Welburn

Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control

Marco Coral-Almeida, Richar Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Maritza Celi-Erazo, Héctor Hugo García, Silvia Rodríguez, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Washington Benítez-Ortiz, Pierre Dorny, Nicolas Praet

Multiple Resistances and Complex Mechanisms of Anopheles sinensis Mosquito: A Major Obstacle to Mosquito-Borne Diseases Control and Elimination in China

Xuelian Chang, Daibin Zhong, Qiang Fang, Joshua Hartsel, Guofa Zhou, Linna Shi, Fujin Fang, Changliang Zhu, Guiyun Yan

The Interface between Methyltransferase and Polymerase of NS5 Is Essential for Flavivirus Replication

Xiao-Dan Li, Chao Shan, Cheng-Lin Deng, Han-Qing Ye, Pei-Yong Shi, Zhi-Ming Yuan, Peng Gong, Bo Zhang

Development of Peptide-Based Lineage-Specific Serology for Chronic Chagas Disease: Geographical and Clinical Distribution of Epitope Recognition

Tapan Bhattacharyya, Andrew K. Falconar, Alejandro O. Luquetti, Jaime A. Costales, Mario J. Grijalva, Michael D. Lewis, Louisa A. Messenger, Trang T. Tran, Juan-David Ramirez, Felipe Guhl, Hernan J. Carrasco, Patricio Diosque, Lineth Garcia, Sergey V. Litvinov, Michael A. Miles

Domestic Animal Hosts Strongly Influence Human-Feeding Rates of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina

Ricardo E. Gürtler, María C. Cecere, Gonzalo M. Vázquez-Prokopec, Leonardo A. Ceballos, Juan M. Gurevitz, María del Pilar Fernández, Uriel Kitron, Joel E. Cohen

Community Knowledge and Attitudes and Health Workers' Practices regarding Non-malaria Febrile Illnesses in Eastern Tanzania

Beatrice Chipwaza, Joseph P. Mugasa, Iddy Mayumana, Mbaraka Amuri, Christina Makungu, Paul S. Gwakisa

Spatio-Temporal Factors Associated with Meningococcal Meningitis Annual Incidence at the Health Centre Level in Niger, 2004–2010

Juliette Paireau, Halima B. Maïnassara, Jean-François Jusot, Jean-Marc Collard, Issa Idi, Jean-Paul Moulia-Pelat, Judith E. Mueller, Arnaud Fontanet

Late Onset of the Serological Response against the 18 kDa Small Heat Shock Protein of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Children

Katharina Röltgen, Martin W. Bratschi, Amanda Ross, Samuel Y. Aboagye, Kobina A. Ampah, Miriam Bolz, Arianna Andreoli, James Pritchard, Jacques C. Minyem, Djeunga Noumen, Eric Koka, Alphonse Um Boock, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Gerd Pluschke

Dual RNA-seq of Parasite and Host Reveals Gene Expression Dynamics during Filarial Worm–Mosquito Interactions

Young-Jun Choi, Matthew T. Aliota, George F. Mayhew, Sara M. Erickson, Bruce M. Christensen

Population Pharmacokinetic Study of Benznidazole in Pediatric Chagas Disease Suggests Efficacy despite Lower Plasma Concentrations than in Adults

Jaime Altcheh, Guillermo Moscatelli, Guido Mastrantonio, Samanta Moroni, Norberto Giglio, Maria Elena Marson, Griselda Ballering, Margarita Bisio, Gideon Koren, Facundo García-Bournissen

Serological Responses and Biomarker Evaluation in Mice and Pigs Exposed to Tsetse Fly Bites

Guy Caljon, Reta Duguma, Reginald De Deken, Stijn Schauvliege, Frank Gasthuys, Luc Duchateau, Jan Van Den Abbeele

Projected Future Distributions of Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in North America under Climate Change Scenarios

Miroslava Garza, Teresa Patricia Feria Arroyo, Edgar A. Casillas, Victor Sanchez-Cordero, Chissa-Louise Rivaldi, Sahotra Sarkar

INsPECT, an Open-Source and Versatile Software for Automated Quantification of (Leishmania) Intracellular Parasites

Ehsan Yazdanparast, Antonio Dos Anjos, Deborah Garcia, Corinne Loeuillet, Hamid Reza Shahbazkia, Baptiste Vergnes

Epidemiology and Genetic Variability of HHV-8/KSHV in Pygmy and Bantu Populations in Cameroon

Edouard Betsem, Olivier Cassar, Philippe V. Afonso, Arnaud Fontanet, Alain Froment, Antoine Gessain

Hemoglobin Uptake by Paracoccidioides spp. Is Receptor-Mediated

Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão, Juliana Alves Parente, Laurine Lacerda Pigosso, Kelly Pacheco de Castro, Fernanda Lopes Fonseca, Mirelle Garcia Silva-Bailão, Sônia Nair Báo, Alexandre Melo Bailão, Marcio L. Rodrigues, Orville Hernandez, Juan G. McEwen, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares

Rabies in Nonhuman Primates and Potential for Transmission to Humans: A Literature Review and Examination of Selected French National Data

Philippe Gautret, Jesse Blanton, Laurent Dacheux, Florence Ribadeau-Dumas, Philippe Brouqui, Philippe Parola, Douglas H. Esposito, Hervé Bourhy

Spatial Distribution of the Risk of Dengue and the Entomological Indicators in Sumaré, State of São Paulo, Brazil

Gerson Laurindo Barbosa, Maria Rita Donalísio, Celso Stephan, Roberto Wagner Lourenço, Valmir Roberto Andrade, Marylene de Brito Arduino, Virgilia Luna Castor de Lima

Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecological Dynamics and Its Association with Freshwater Ecosystems and Aquatic Communities: Results from a 12-Month Environmental Survey in Cameroon

Andrés Garchitorena, Benjamin Roche, Roger Kamgang, Joachim Ossomba, Jérémie Babonneau, Jordi Landier, Arnaud Fontanet, Antoine Flahault, Sara Eyangoh, Jean-François Guégan, Laurent Marsollier

Epidemiologic Features and Environmental Risk Factors of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Xinyang, China

Kun Liu, Ning Cui, Li-Qun Fang, Bing-Jun Wang, Qing-Bin Lu, Wei Peng, Hao Li, Li-Yuan Wang, Song Liang, Hong-Yu Wang, Yao-Yun Zhang, Lu Zhuang, Hong Yang, Gregory C. Gray, Sake J. de Vlas, Wei Liu, Wu-Chun Cao

Fitness Impact and Stability of a Transgene Conferring Resistance to Dengue-2 Virus following Introgression into a Genetically Diverse Aedes aegypti Strain

Alexander W. E. Franz, Irma Sanchez-Vargas, Robyn R. Raban, William C. Black IV, Anthony A. James, Ken E. Olson

Antileishmanial Activity of the Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene

Juliana Q. Reimão, Danilo C. Miguel, Noemi N. Taniwaki, Cristiana T. Trinconi, Jenicer K. U. Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Silvia R. B. Uliana

Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya

Liya M. Assefa, Thomas Crellen, Stella Kepha, Jimmy H. Kihara, Sammy M. Njenga, Rachel L. Pullan, Simon J. Brooker

Field-Evaluation of a New Lateral Flow Assay for Detection of Cellular and Humoral Immunity against Mycobacterium leprae

Kidist Bobosha, Elisa M. Tjon Kon Fat, Susan J. F. van den Eeden, Yonas Bekele, Jolien J. van der Ploeg-van Schip, Claudia J. de Dood, Karin Dijkman, Kees L. M. C. Franken, Louis Wilson, Abraham Aseffa, John S. Spencer, Tom H. M. Ottenhoff, Paul L. A. M. Corstjens, Annemieke Geluk

Cytokine Responses to the Anti-schistosome Vaccine Candidate Antigen Glutathione-S-transferase Vary with Host Age and Are Boosted by Praziquantel Treatment

Claire D. Bourke, Norman Nausch, Nadine Rujeni, Laura J. Appleby, François Trottein, Nicholas Midzi, Takafira Mduluza, Francisca Mutapi

In Vitro and In Vivo Trypanocidal Activity of H2bdtc-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Zumira A. Carneiro, Pedro I. da S. Maia, Renata Sesti-Costa, Carla D. Lopes, Tatiana A. Pereira, Cristiane M. Milanezi, Marcelo A. Pereira. da Silva, Renata F. V. Lopez, João S. Silva, Victor M. Deflon

Reduction Patterns of Acute Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China

Shi-Zhu Li, Hao Zheng, Eniola Michael Abe, Kun Yang, Robert Bergquist, Ying-Jun Qian, Li-Juan Zhang, Zhi-Min Xu, Jing Xu, Jia-Gang Guo, Ning Xiao, Xiao-Nong Zhou

Transcriptional and Proteomic Responses to Carbon Starvation in Paracoccidioides

Patrícia de Sousa Lima, Luciana Casaletti, Alexandre Melo Bailão, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares

Evaluation of Antiviral Efficacy of Ribavirin, Arbidol, and T-705 (Favipiravir) in a Mouse Model for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Lisa Oestereich, Toni Rieger, Melanie Neumann, Christian Bernreuther, Maria Lehmann, Susanne Krasemann, Stephanie Wurr, Petra Emmerich, Xavier de Lamballerie, Stephan Ölschläger, Stephan Günther

Statistical Modeling Reveals the Effect of Absolute Humidity on Dengue in Singapore

Hai-Yan Xu, Xiuju Fu, Lionel Kim Hock Lee, Stefan Ma, Kee Tai Goh, Jiancheng Wong, Mohamed Salahuddin Habibullah, Gary Kee Khoon Lee, Tian Kuay Lim, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Chin Leong Lim, Lee Ching Ng

Trends in the Epidemiology of Pandemic and Non-pandemic Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Diarrheal Patients in Kolkata, India

Gururaja P. Pazhani, Sushanta K. Bhowmik, Santanu Ghosh, Sucharita Guin, Sanjucta Dutta, Krishnan Rajendran, Dhira Rani Saha, Ranjan K. Nandy, Mihir K. Bhattacharya, Asish K. Mukhopadhyay, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy

A New Mouse Model for Female Genital Schistosomiasis

Monica L. Richardson, Chi-Ling Fu, Luke F. Pennington, Jared D. Honeycutt, Justin L. Odegaard, Yi-Ju Hsieh, Olfat Hammam, Simon L. Conti, Michael H. Hsieh

Immunogenicity of a Killed Bivalent (O1 and O139) Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine, Shanchol, in Haiti

Richelle C. Charles, Isabelle J. Hilaire, Leslie M. Mayo-Smith, Jessica E. Teng, J. Gregory Jerome, Molly F. Franke, Amit Saha, Yanan Yu, Paul Kováč, Stephen B. Calderwood, Edward T. Ryan, Regina C. LaRocque, Charles P. Almazor, Firdausi Qadri, Louise C. Ivers, Jason B. Harris

Trans-spliced Heat Shock Protein 90 Modulates Encystation in Giardia lamblia

Rishi Kumar Nageshan, Nainita Roy, Shatakshi Ranade, Utpal Tatu

Species-Directed Therapy for Leishmaniasis in Returning Travellers: A Comprehensive Guide

Caspar J. Hodiamont, Piet A. Kager, Aldert Bart, Henry J. C. de Vries, Pieter P. A. M. van Thiel, Tjalling Leenstra, Peter J. de Vries, Michèle van Vugt, Martin P. Grobusch, Tom van Gool

Prevalence and Serological Diagnosis of Relapse in Paracoccidioidomycosis Patients

Tatiane Fernanda Sylvestre, Luciane Regina Franciscone Silva, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Daniela Vanessa Moris, James Venturini, Adriana Pardini Vicentini, Lídia Raquel de Carvalho, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes

Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

Juliane Schatz, Conrad Martin Freuling, Ernst Auer, Hooman Goharriz, Christine Harbusch, Nicholas Johnson, Ingrid Kaipf, Thomas Christoph Mettenleiter, Kristin Mühldorfer, Ralf-Udo Mühle, Bernd Ohlendorf, Bärbel Pott-Dörfer, Julia Prüger, Hanan Sheikh Ali, Dagmar Stiefel, Jens Teubner, Rainer Günter Ulrich, Gudrun Wibbelt, Thomas Müller

Discovery and Confirmation of Ligand Binding Specificities of the Schistosoma japonicum Polarity Protein Scribble

Pengfei Cai, Yi Mu, Xianyu Piao, Nan Hou, Shuai Liu, Youhe Gao, Heng Wang, Qijun Chen

Reliability of Trachoma Clinical Grading—Assessing Grading of Marginal Cases

Salman A. Rahman, Sun N. Yu, Abdou Amza, Sintayehu Gebreselassie, Boubacar Kadri, Nassirou Baido, Nicole E. Stoller, Joseph P. Sheehan, Travis C. Porco, Bruce D. Gaynor, Jeremy D. Keenan, Thomas M. Lietman

Corrections

Correction: A New Mouse Model for Female Genital Schistosomiasis

The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff