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Table of Contents: October 2010

COVER

Houses in a Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala azar) endemic village in Bihar state (India).

Image Credit: Marc Coosemans, Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp
Issue Image

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also know as kala azar, is one of the major public health concerns in Bihar state (India). In the Indian subcontinent, VL is caused by Leishmania donovani which is transmitted by peri-domestic Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. To date, Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) of households in endemic regions has been unable to control the disease. Vector resistance to the insecticides (i.e. DDT) may be one of the possible reasons explaining this failure (see Dinesh et al., 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000859).

Editorial

Policy Platform

Research Priorities for Neglected Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean Region

Jean-Claude Dujardin, Socrates Herrera, Virgilio do Rosario, Jorge Arevalo, Marleen Boelaert, Hernan J. Carrasco, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Lineth Garcia, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Theresa W. Gyorkos, Alexis M. Kalergis, Gustavo Kouri, Vicente Larraga, Pascal Lutumba, Maria Angeles Macias Garcia, Pablo C. Manrique-Saide, Farrokh Modabber, Alberto Nieto, Gerd Pluschke, Carlos Robello, Antonieta Rojas de Arias, Martin Rumbo, Jose Ignacio Santos Preciado, Shyam Sundar, Jaime Torres, Faustino Torrico, Patrick Van der Stuyft, Kathleen Victoir, Ole F. Olesen

Review

Research Articles

Geographical Variation in the Response of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Paromomycin in East Africa: A Multicentre, Open-Label, Randomized Trial

Asrat Hailu, Ahmed Musa, Monique Wasunna, Manica Balasegaram, Sisay Yifru, Getahun Mengistu, Zewdu Hurissa, Workagegnehu Hailu, Teklu Weldegebreal, Samson Tesfaye, Eyasu Makonnen, Eltahir Khalil, Osama Ahmed, Ahmed Fadlalla, Ahmed El-Hassan, Muzamil Raheem, Marius Mueller, Yousif Koummuki, Juma Rashid, Jane Mbui, Geoffrey Mucee, Simon Njoroge, Veronica Manduku, Alice Musibi, Geoffrey Mutuma, Fredrick Kirui, Hudson Lodenyo, Dedan Mutea, George Kirigi, Tansy Edwards, Peter Smith, Lawrence Muthami, Catherine Royce, Sally Ellis, Moses Alobo, Raymond Omollo, Josephine Kesusu, Rhoda Owiti, John Kinuthia , for the Leishmaniasis East Africa Platform (LEAP) group

Comparison of Dengue Virus Type 2-Specific Small RNAs from RNA Interference-Competent and –Incompetent Mosquito Cells

Jaclyn C. Scott, Doug E. Brackney, Corey L. Campbell, Virginie Bondu-Hawkins, Brian Hjelle, Greg D. Ebel, Ken E. Olson, Carol D. Blair

Pre-Clinical Assays Predict Pan-African Echis Viper Efficacy for a Species-Specific Antivenom

Nicholas R. Casewell, Darren A. N. Cook, Simon C. Wagstaff, Abdulsalami Nasidi, Nandul Durfa, Wolfgang Wüster, Robert A. Harrison

Viral Etiology of Encephalitis in Children in Southern Vietnam: Results of a One-Year Prospective Descriptive Study

Le Van Tan, Phan Tu Qui, Do Quang Ha, Nguyen Bach Hue, Lam Quoi Bao, Bach Van Cam, Truong Huu Khanh, Tran Tinh Hien, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Tran Tan Tram, Vo Minh Hien, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Constance Schultsz, Jeremy Farrar, H. Rogier van Doorn, Menno D. de Jong

Paromomycin for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Sudan: A Randomized, Open-Label, Dose-Finding Study

Ahmed M. Musa, Brima Younis, Ahmed Fadlalla, Catherine Royce, Manica Balasegaram, Monique Wasunna, Asrat Hailu, Tansy Edwards, Raymond Omollo, Mahmoud Mudawi, Gilbert Kokwaro, Ahmed El-Hassan, Eltahir Khalil

C6/36 Aedes albopictus Cells Have a Dysfunctional Antiviral RNA Interference Response

Doug E. Brackney, Jaclyn C. Scott, Fumihiko Sagawa, Jimmy E. Woodward, Neil A. Miller, Faye D. Schilkey, Joann Mudge, Jeffrey Wilusz, Ken E. Olson, Carol D. Blair, Gregory D. Ebel

Transcriptional Responses of Leptospira interrogans to Host Innate Immunity: Significant Changes in Metabolism, Oxygen Tolerance, and Outer Membrane

Feng Xue, Haiyan Dong, Jinyu Wu, Zuowei Wu, Weilin Hu, Aihua Sun, Bryan Troxell, X. Frank Yang, Jie Yan

Unforeseen Costs of Cutting Mosquito Surveillance Budgets

Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, Luis F. Chaves, Scott A. Ritchie, Joe Davis, Uriel Kitron

Insecticide Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Districts in India and Nepal

Diwakar Singh Dinesh, Murari Lal Das, Albert Picado, Lalita Roy, Suman Rijal, Shri Prakash Singh, Pradeep Das, Marleen Boelaert, Marc Coosemans

Annual Incidence of Snake Bite in Rural Bangladesh

Ridwanur Rahman, M. Abul Faiz, Shahjada Selim, Bayzidur Rahman, Ariful Basher, Alison Jones, Catherine d'Este, Moazzem Hossain, Ziaul Islam, Habib Ahmed, Abul Hasnat Milton

RNA Interference in Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomula: Selectivity, Sensitivity and Operation for Larger-Scale Screening

Saša Štefanić, Jan Dvořák, Martin Horn, Simon Braschi, Daniel Sojka, Debbie S. Ruelas, Brian Suzuki, Kee-Chong Lim, Stephanie D. Hopkins, James H. McKerrow, Conor R. Caffrey

Monoclonal Antibodies Against Peptidorhamnomannans of Scedosporium apiospermum Enhance the Pathogenicity of the Fungus

Livia C. L. Lopes, Rodrigo Rollin-Pinheiro, Allan J. Guimarães, Vera C. B. Bittencourt, Luis R. Martinez, Wade Koba, Sandra E. Farias, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Eliana Barreto-Bergter

Systemic FasL and TRAIL Neutralisation Reduce Leishmaniasis Induced Skin Ulceration

Geremew Tasew, Susanne Nylén, Thorsten Lieke, Befekadu Lemu, Hailu Meless, Nicolas Ruffin, Dawit Wolday, Abraham Asseffa, Hideo Yagita, Sven Britton, Hannah Akuffo, Francesca Chiodi, Liv Eidsmo

CD8+ T Cells as a Source of IFN-γ Production in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami, Hossein Keshavarz, Rosita Edalat, Abdolfattah Sarrafnejad, Tahereh Shahrestani, Fereidoun Mahboudi, Ali Khamesipour

Coinfection with Different Trypanosoma cruzi Strains Interferes with the Host Immune Response to Infection

Claudiney Melquíades Rodrigues, Helder Magno Silva Valadares, Amanda Fortes Francisco, Jerusa Marilda Arantes, Camila França Campos, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araujo, Rosa Maria Esteves Arantes, Egler Chiari, Glória Regina Franco, Carlos Renato Machado, Sérgio Danilo Junho Pena, Ana Maria Caetano Faria, Andréa Mara Macedo

Biochemical Properties of a Novel Cysteine Protease of Plasmodium vivax, Vivapain-4

Byoung-Kuk Na, Young-An Bae, Young-Gun Zo, Youngchool Choe, Seon-Hee Kim, Prashant V. Desai, Mitchell A. Avery, Charles S. Craik, Tong-Soo Kim, Philip J. Rosenthal, Yoon Kong

Enhanced Case Detection and Improved Diagnosis of PKDL in a Kala-azar-Endemic Area of Bangladesh

Dinesh Mondal, Kamrul Nahar Nasrin, M. Mamun Huda, Mamun Kabir, Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain, Axel Kroeger, Tania Thomas, Rashidul Haque

2nd International External Quality Control Assessment for the Molecular Diagnosis of Dengue Infections

Cristina Domingo, Matthias Niedrig, Anette Teichmann, Marco Kaiser, Leonid Rumer, Richard G. Jarman, Oliver Donoso-Mantke

Metabolomics-Based Discovery of Diagnostic Biomarkers for Onchocerciasis

Judith R. Denery, Ashlee A. K. Nunes, Mark S. Hixon, Tobin J. Dickerson, Kim D. Janda

Profound and Sustained Reduction in Chlamydia trachomatis in The Gambia: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study of Trachoma Endemic Communities

Matthew J. Burton, Martin J. Holland, Pateh Makalo, Esther A. N. Aryee, Ansumana Sillah, Sandra Cohuet, Angels Natividad, Neal D. E. Alexander, David C. W. Mabey, Robin L. Bailey

Chagas Disease Risk in Texas

Sahotra Sarkar, Stavana E. Strutz, David M. Frank, Chissa–Louise Rivaldi, Blake Sissel, Victor Sánchez–Cordero

Mass Treatment with Azithromycin for Trachoma Control: Participation Clusters in Households

Elizabeth N. Ssemanda, Beatriz Munoz, Emma M. Harding-Esch, Tansy Edwards, Harran Mkocha, Robin L. Bailey, Ansumana Sillah, Dianne Stare, David C. W. Mabey, Sheila K. West , On behalf of PRET Project Team

TcTASV: A Novel Protein Family in Trypanosoma cruzi Identified from a Subtractive Trypomastigote cDNA Library

Elizabeth A. García, María Ziliani, Fernán Agüero, Guillermo Bernabó, Daniel O. Sánchez, Valeria Tekiel

Identification of Leishmania Proteins Preferentially Released in Infected Cells Using Change Mediated Antigen Technology (CMAT)

Peter E. Kima, J. Alfredo Bonilla, Eumin Cho, Blaise Ndjamen, Johnathan Canton, Nicole Leal, Martin Handfield