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Table of Contents: June 2012

COVER

Zone 2 tumba, Caio, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

Image Credit: Matthew Cotten (Medical Research Council/Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute)
Issue Image

Caio is a rural village in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. The local population is from the Manjako tribe and has a strong animist belief system. A field station and census were established in the 1980s and studies in Caio have provided important details on the West African HIV-1 and HIV-2 epidemics. HTLV-1 is endemic in Caio and a report on the molecular epidemiology of this virus can be found in this issue (see van Tienen et al., doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001690).

The painting depicts a tumba, an important site used for community decisions and ceremonies. These sites are often marked by large and beautiful kapok trees.

Editorial

Viewpoints

Loa loa Ecology in Central Africa: Role of the Congo River System

Louise A. Kelly-Hope, Moses J. Bockarie, David H. Molyneux

Symposiums

The Human African Trypanosomiasis Specimen Biobank: A Necessary Tool to Support Research of New Diagnostics

Jose R. Franco, Pere P. Simarro, Abdoulaye Diarra, Jose A. Ruiz-Postigo, Jean G. Jannin

Human Bertielliasis in Amazonia: Case Report and Challenging Diagnosis

Adriano P. Furtado, Evander de J. O. Batista, Evonnildo C. Gonçalves, Anderson M. H. O. Silva, Francisco T. V. Melo, Elane G. Giese, Jeannie N. Santos

Review

Research Articles

Clinical Features of Dengue in a Large Vietnamese Cohort: Intrinsically Lower Platelet Counts and Greater Risk for Bleeding in Adults than Children

Trung Dinh The, Thao Le Thi Thu, Dung Nguyen Minh, Ngoc Tran Van, Hien Tran Tinh, Chau Nguyen Van Vinh, Marcel Wolbers, Tam Dong Thi Hoai, Jeremy Farrar, Cameron Simmons, Bridget Wills

Comparing the Clinical and Histological Diagnosis of Leprosy and Leprosy Reactions in the INFIR Cohort of Indian Patients with Multibacillary Leprosy

Diana N. J. Lockwood, Peter Nicholls, W. Cairns S. Smith, Loretta Das, Pramila Barkataki, Wim van Brakel, Sujai Suneetha

First International External Quality Assessment of Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

Camille Escadafal, Stephan Ölschläger, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, Anna Papa, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Roman Wölfel, Ali Mirazimi, Anette Teichmann, Oliver Donoso-Mantke, Matthias Niedrig

Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

Hernán J. Carrasco, Maikell Segovia, Martin S. Llewellyn, Antonio Morocoima, Servio Urdaneta-Morales, Cinda Martínez, Clara E. Martínez, Carlos Garcia, Marlenes Rodríguez, Raul Espinosa, Belkisyolé A. de Noya, Zoraida Díaz-Bello, Leidi Herrera, Sinead Fitzpatrick, Matthew Yeo, Michael A. Miles, M. Dora Feliciangeli

Neutrophil Paralysis in Plasmodium vivax Malaria

Fabiana Maria de Souza Leoratti, Silvia Cellone Trevelin, Fernando Queiroz Cunha, Bruno Coelho Rocha, Pedro Augusto Carvalho Costa, Humberto Doriguêtto Gravina, Mauro Shugiro Tada, Dhelio Batista Pereira, Douglas Taylor Golenbock, Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Definitions and Standardization of a New Grading Scheme for Eyelid Contour Abnormalities after Trichiasis Surgery

Emily W. Gower, Sheila K. West, Sandra D. Cassard, Beatriz E. Munoz, Jennifer C. Harding, Shannath L. Merbs

Burkholderia pseudomallei Known Siderophores and Hemin Uptake Are Dispensable for Lethal Murine Melioidosis

Brian H. Kvitko, Andrew Goodyear, Katie L. Propst, Steven W. Dow, Herbert P. Schweizer

Prophylactic Platelets in Dengue: Survey Responses Highlight Lack of an Evidence Base

James Whitehorn, Rosmari Rodriguez Roche, Maria G. Guzman, Eric Martinez, Wilmar Villamil Gomez, Leonard Nainggolan, Ida Safitri Laksono, Ajay Mishra, Lucy Lum, Abul Faiz, Amadou Sall, Joshua Dawurung, Alvaro Borges, Yee-Sin Leo, Lucille Blumberg, Daniel G. Bausch, Axel Kroeger, Olaf Horstick, Guy Thwaites, Heiman Wertheim, Mattias Larsson, Tran Tinh Hien, Rosanna Peeling, Bridget Wills, Cameron Simmons, Jeremy Farrar

Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) & Paromomycin Combination Compared to SSG for Visceral Leishmaniasis in East Africa: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Ahmed Musa, Eltahir Khalil, Asrat Hailu, Joseph Olobo, Manica Balasegaram, Raymond Omollo, Tansy Edwards, Juma Rashid, Jane Mbui, Brima Musa, Abuzaid Abdalla Abuzaid, Osama Ahmed, Ahmed Fadlalla, Ahmed El-Hassan, Marius Mueller, Geoffrey Mucee, Simon Njoroge, Veronica Manduku, Geoffrey Mutuma, Lilian Apadet, Hudson Lodenyo, Dedan Mutea, George Kirigi, Sisay Yifru, Getahun Mengistu, Zewdu Hurissa, Workagegnehu Hailu, Teklu Weldegebreal, Hailemariam Tafes, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Eyasu Makonnen, Serah Ndegwa, Patrick Sagaki, Robert Kimutai, Josephine Kesusu, Rhoda Owiti, Sally Ellis, Monique Wasunna

Ecological Niche Modeling to Estimate the Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Asia

Robin H. Miller, Penny Masuoka, Terry A. Klein, Heung-Chul Kim, Todd Somer, John Grieco

Use of a LiESP/QA-21 Vaccine (CaniLeish) Stimulates an Appropriate Th1-Dominated Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Dogs

Javier Moreno, Ioannis Vouldoukis, Virginie Martin, David McGahie, Anne-Marie Cuisinier, Sylvie Gueguen

Immunodominant Antigens of Leishmania chagasi Associated with Protection against Human Visceral Leishmaniasis

Daniel R. Abánades, Leonardo V. Arruda, Elaine S. Arruda, José Roberto A. S. Pinto, Mario S. Palma, Dorlene Aquino, Arlene J. Caldas, Manuel Soto, Aldina Barral, Manoel Barral-Netto

The ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins of the Deep-Branching Protozoan Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

Christopher Kay, Katharine D. Woodward, Karen Lawler, Tim J. Self, Sabrina D. Dyall, Ian D. Kerr

Combined Spatial Prediction of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: A Tool for Integrated Disease Control

Mary H. Hodges, Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães, Jusufu Paye, Joseph B. Koroma, Mustapha Sonnie, Archie Clements, Yaobi Zhang

Why Are There So Few Rickettsia conorii conorii-Infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks in the Wild?

Cristina Socolovschi, Jean Gaudart, Idir Bitam, Thi Phong Huynh, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola

First Molecular Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

Ahmad Amro, Aisha Gashout, Hamida Al-Dwibe, Mohammad Zahangir Alam, Badereddin Annajar, Omar Hamarsheh, Hend Shubar, Gabriele Schönian

Evidence for Involvement of Th17 Type Responses in Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL)

Gajendra Kumar Katara, Nasim Akhtar Ansari, Avninder Singh, V. Ramesh, Poonam Salotra

Impact of PGL-I Seropositivity on the Protective Effect of BCG Vaccination among Leprosy Contacts: A Cohort Study

Nádia C. Düppre, Luiz Antonio B. Camacho, Anna M. Sales, Ximena Illarramendi, José Augusto C. Nery, Elizabeth P. Sampaio, Euzenir N. Sarno, Samira Bührer-Sékula

Oligonucleotide Based Magnetic Bead Capture of Onchocerca volvulus DNA for PCR Pool Screening of Vector Black Flies

Hemavathi Gopal, Hassan K. Hassan, Mario A. Rodríguez-Pérez, Laurent D. Toé, Sara Lustigman, Thomas R. Unnasch

Landscape Ecology of Sylvatic Chikungunya Virus and Mosquito Vectors in Southeastern Senegal

Diawo Diallo, Amadou A. Sall, Michaela Buenemann, Rubing Chen, Oumar Faye, Cheikh T. Diagne, Ousmane Faye, Yamar Ba, Ibrahima Dia, Douglas Watts, Scott C. Weaver, Kathryn A. Hanley, Mawlouth Diallo

Prediction Score for Antimony Treatment Failure in Patients with Ulcerative Leishmaniasis Lesions

Cristian Valencia, Jorge Arévalo, Jean Claude Dujardin, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, François Chappuis, Mirko Zimic

An Image-Based High-Content Screening Assay for Compounds Targeting Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in Human Macrophages

Jair L. Siqueira-Neto, Seunghyun Moon, Jiyeon Jang, Gyongseon Yang, Changbok Lee, Hong Kee Moon, Eric Chatelain, Auguste Genovesio, Jonathan Cechetto, Lucio H. Freitas-Junior

Sporotrichosis in Sub-Himalayan India

Santwana Verma, Ghanshyam K. Verma, Gagandeep Singh, Anil Kanga, Vinay Shanker, Digvijay Singh, Poonam Gupta, Kiran Mokta, Vinita Sharma

Ciclosporin A Proof of Concept Study in Patients with Active, Progressive HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

Fabiola Martin, Hannah Castro, Carolyn Gabriel, Adine Adonis, Alexandra Fedina, Linda Harrison, Liz Brodnicki, Maria A. Demontis, Abdel G. Babiker, Jonathan N. Weber, Charles R. M. Bangham, Graham P. Taylor

High Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B Infection and Association with Underweight in Rwandan Children

Ralf Ignatius, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Christian Klotz, Christian Steininger, Cyprien Shyirambere, Michel Lyng, Andre Musemakweri, Toni Aebischer, Peter Martus, Gundel Harms, Frank P. Mockenhaupt

Identification of Mimotopes with Diagnostic Potential for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Variant Surface Glycoproteins Using Human Antibody Fractions

Liesbeth Van Nieuwenhove, Philippe Büscher, Fatima Balharbi, Michael Humbert, Tessa Dieltjens, Yves Guisez, Veerle Lejon

Local Increase of Arginase Activity in Lesions of Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

Tamrat Abebe, Asrat Hailu, Mihretu Woldeyes, Woinshet Mekonen, Kassahun Bilcha, Thomas Cloke, Lionel Fry, Nafisa-Katrin Seich al Basatena, Karina Corware, Manuel Modolell, Markus Munder, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier, Ingrid Müller, Pascale Kropf

Vasa-Like DEAD-Box RNA Helicases of Schistosoma mansoni

Danielle E. Skinner, Gabriel Rinaldi, Sutas Suttiprapa, Victoria H. Mann, Pablo Smircich, Alexis A. Cogswell, David L. Williams, Paul J. Brindley

Molecular Epidemiology of Endemic Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in a Rural Community in Guinea-Bissau

Carla van Tienen, Thushan I. de Silva, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara, Clayton O. Onyango, Sheikh Jarju, Nato Gonçalves, Tim Vincent, Peter Aaby, Hilton Whittle, Maarten Schim van der Loeff, Matthew Cotten

Untreated Human Infections by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Are Not 100% Fatal

Vincent Jamonneau, Hamidou Ilboudo, Jacques Kaboré, Dramane Kaba, Mathurin Koffi, Philippe Solano, André Garcia, David Courtin, Claude Laveissière, Kouakou Lingue, Philippe Büscher, Bruno Bucheton

Oral Administration of GW788388, an Inhibitor of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling, Prevents Heart Fibrosis in Chagas Disease

Fabiane L. de Oliveira, Tania C. Araújo-Jorge, Elen M. de Souza, Gabriel M. de Oliveira, Wim M. Degrave, Jean-Jacques Feige, Sabine Bailly, Mariana C. Waghabi

Footprint of Positive Selection in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Genome Sequences Suggests Adaptive Microevolution of the Syphilis Pathogen

Lorenzo Giacani, Sujay Chattopadhyay, Arturo Centurion-Lara, Brendan M. Jeffrey, Hoavan T. Le, Barbara J. Molini, Sheila A. Lukehart, Evgeni V. Sokurenko, Daniel D. Rockey

Rickettsiae Induce Microvascular Hyperpermeability via Phosphorylation of VE-Cadherins: Evidence from Atomic Force Microscopy and Biochemical Studies

Bin Gong, Liang Ma, Yan Liu, Qinyu Gong, Thomas Shelite, Donald Bouyer, Paul J. Boor, Yong Sun Lee, Andres Oberhauser

Living Invisible: HTLV-1-Infected Persons and the Lack of Care in Public Health

Karina Franco Zihlmann, Augusta Thereza de Alvarenga, Jorge Casseb

Multispacer Sequence Typing Relapsing Fever Borreliae in Africa

Elbir Haitham, Gregory Gimenez, Cheikh Sokhna, Kassahun Desalegn Bilcha, Jemal Ali, Stephen C. Barker, Sally J. Cutler, Didier Raoult, Michel Drancourt

Early Prediction of Treatment Efficacy in Second-Stage Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

Gerardo Priotto, François Chappuis, Mathieu Bastard, Laurence Flevaud, Jean-François Etard

Genetics of Host Response to Leishmania tropica in Mice – Different Control of Skin Pathology, Chemokine Reaction, and Invasion into Spleen and Liver

Tetyana Kobets, Helena Havelková, Igor Grekov, Valeriya Volkova, Jarmila Vojtíšková, Martina Slapničková, Iryna Kurey, Yahya Sohrabi, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová

Isothermal Microcalorimetry, a New Tool to Monitor Drug Action against Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum

Tanja Wenzler, Andrea Steinhuber, Sergio Wittlin, Christian Scheurer, Reto Brun, Andrej Trampuz

Cross Neutralization of Afro-Asian Cobra and Asian Krait Venoms by a Thai Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom)

Poh Kuan Leong, Si Mui Sim, Shin Yee Fung, Khomvilai Sumana, Visith Sitprija, Nget Hong Tan

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

Linda K. Lee, Victor C. Gan, Vernon J. Lee, Adriana S. Tan, Yee Sin Leo, David C. Lye

Altered Circulating Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inhibitors Associated with Elevated Type 2 Cytokines in Lymphatic Filarial Disease

Rajamanickam Anuradha, Jovvian P. George, Nathella Pavankumar, Vasanthapuram Kumaraswami, Thomas B. Nutman, Subash Babu

Efficacy and Safety of Nitazoxanide, Albendazole, and Nitazoxanide-Albendazole against Trichuris trichiura Infection: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Benjamin Speich, Shaali M. Ame, Said M. Ali, Rainer Alles, Jan Hattendorf, Jürg Utzinger, Marco Albonico, Jennifer Keiser