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Table of Contents: July 2011

COVER

Lumbar puncture in the field.

Image Credit: Robin Meldrum (Médecins Sans Frontières)
Issue Image

The neuro-encephalitic stage (or stage 2) of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) is fatal if untreated, and accuracy of diagnosis and staging of infections is therefore essential. HAT diagnostic algorithms are complex and rely on outdated tests. Stage 2 diagnosis requires demonstration of parasites or inflammation in the cerebro-spinal fluid, a sample of which is obtained from patients through lumbar puncture. Lumbar puncture is a dangerous and painful procedure. Current research on better and simpler HAT diagnostic tests will hopefully obviate this requirement in the years to come. See Checchi et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001233.

Editorial

Viewpoints

Cystic Echinococcosis: Chronic, Complex, and Still Neglected

Enrico Brunetti, Hector H. Garcia, Thomas Junghanss , on behalf of the members of the International CE Workshop in Lima, Peru, 2009

Policy Platform

Leishmaniasis: Middle East and North Africa Research and Development Priorities

Mary Ann McDowell, Sima Rafati, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao, Afif Ben Salah

From Innovation to Application

Improved PCR-RFLP for the Detection of Diminazene Resistance in Trypanosoma congolense under Field Conditions Using Filter Papers for Sample Storage

Hervé Sèna Vitouley, Erick Ouma Mungube, Emmanuel Allegye-Cudjoe, Oumar Diall, Zakaria Bocoum, Boucader Diarra, Thomas F. Randolph, Burkhard Bauer, Peter-Henning Clausen, Dirk Geysen, Issa Sidibe, Zakaria Bengaly, Peter Van den Bossche, Vincent Delespaux

Research Articles

Effects of Irritant Chemicals on Aedes aegypti Resting Behavior: Is There a Simple Shift to Untreated “Safe Sites”?

Hortance Manda, Luana M. Arce, Tarra Foggie, Pankhil Shah, John P. Grieco, Nicole L. Achee

Randomized Clinical Trial on Ivermectin versus Thiabendazole for the Treatment of Strongyloidiasis

Zeno Bisoffi, Dora Buonfrate, Andrea Angheben, Marina Boscolo, Mariella Anselmi, Stefania Marocco, Geraldo Monteiro, Maria Gobbo, Giulia Bisoffi, Federico Gobbi

Laboratory Confirmation of Buruli Ulcer Disease in Togo, 2007–2010

Gisela Bretzel, Kristina Lydia Huber, Basil Kobara, Marcus Beissner, Ebekalisai Piten, Karl-Heinz Herbinger, Franz Xaver Wiedemann, Komi Amekuse, Abiba Banla Kere, Kerstin Helfrich, Erna Fleischmann, Thomas Löscher, Adolf Diefenhardt, Jörg Nitschke

Mycolactone Diffuses into the Peripheral Blood of Buruli Ulcer Patients - Implications for Diagnosis and Disease Monitoring

Fred S. Sarfo, Fabien Le Chevalier, N'Guetta Aka, Richard O. Phillips, Yaw Amoako, Ivo G. Boneca, Pascal Lenormand, Mireille Dosso, Mark Wansbrough-Jones, Romain Veyron-Churlet, Laure Guenin-Macé, Caroline Demangel

Effect of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Physical Fitness of School Children in Côte d'Ivoire

Ivan Müller, Jean T. Coulibaly, Thomas Fürst, Stefanie Knopp, Jan Hattendorf, Stefanie J. Krauth, Katarina Stete, Aurélie A. Righetti, Dominik Glinz, Adrien K. Yao, Uwe Pühse, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger

Lymphatic Filariasis: A Method to Identify Subclinical Lower Limb Change in PNG Adolescents

Susan Gordon, Wayne Melrose, Jeffrey Warner, Petra Buttner, Leigh Ward

Clinical and Virological Factors Influencing the Performance of a NS1 Antigen-Capture Assay and Potential Use as a Marker of Dengue Disease Severity

Veasna Duong, Sowath Ly, Patrich Lorn Try, Anne Tuiskunen, Sivuth Ong, Norith Chroeung, Ake Lundkvist, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Vincent Deubel, Sirenda Vong, Philippe Buchy

Emergence of a Globally Dominant IncHI1 Plasmid Type Associated with Multiple Drug Resistant Typhoid

Kathryn E. Holt, Minh Duy Phan, Stephen Baker, Pham Thanh Duy, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Satheesh Nair, A. Keith Turner, Ciara Walsh, Séamus Fanning, Sinéad Farrell-Ward, Shanta Dutta, Sam Kariuki, François-Xavier Weill, Julian Parkhill, Gordon Dougan, John Wain

A Screen against Leishmania Intracellular Amastigotes: Comparison to a Promastigote Screen and Identification of a Host Cell-Specific Hit

Geraldine De Muylder, Kenny K. H. Ang, Steven Chen, Michelle R. Arkin, Juan C. Engel, James H. McKerrow

Evidence That Lipopolisaccharide May Contribute to the Cytokine Storm and Cellular Activation in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

Joanna R. Santos-Oliveira, Eduardo G. Regis, Cássia R. B. Leal, Rivaldo V. Cunha, Patrícia T. Bozza, Alda M. Da-Cruz

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata

Matty Knight, Andre Miller, Yijia Liu, Puthupparampil Scaria, Martin Woodle, Wannaporn Ittiprasert

Structural and Topographic Dynamics of Pulmonary Histopathology and Local Cytokine Profiles in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia-Infected Mice

Damaris Lopera, Tonny W. Naranjo, Oswaldo G. Cruz, Angela Restrepo, Luz Elena Cano, Henrique Leonel Lenzi

C-Terminal Domain Deletion Enhances the Protective Activity of cpa/cpb Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles against Leishmania major in BALB/c Mice

Delaram Doroud, Farnaz Zahedifard, Alireza Vatanara, Yasaman Taslimi, Rouholah Vahabpour, Fatemeh Torkashvand, Behrooz Vaziri, Abdolhossein Rouholamini Najafabadi, Sima Rafati

Reduction in Acute Filariasis Morbidity during a Mass Drug Administration Trial to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in Papua New Guinea

Daniel J. Tisch, Neal D. E. Alexander, Benson Kiniboro, Henry Dagoro, Peter M. Siba, Moses J. Bockarie, Michael P. Alpers, James W. Kazura

Measuring Fitness of Kenyan Children with Polyparasitic Infections Using the 20-Meter Shuttle Run Test as a Morbidity Metric

Amaya L. Bustinduy, Charles L. Thomas, Justin J. Fiutem, Isabel M. Parraga, Peter L. Mungai, Eric M. Muchiri, Francis Mutuku, Uriel Kitron, Charles H. King

Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds to C8 and C9 and Protects the Tissue-Dwelling Nematode from Being Attacked by Host Complement

Zhifei Zhang, Jing Yang, Junfei Wei, Yaping Yang, Xiaoqin Chen, Xi Zhao, Yuan Gu, Shijuan Cui, Xinping Zhu

Genotype V Japanese Encephalitis Virus Is Emerging

Ming-Hua Li, Shi-Hong Fu, Wei-Xin Chen, Huan-Yu Wang, Yu-Hong Guo, Qi-Yong Liu, Yi-Xing Li, Hui-Ming Luo, Wa Da, Dun Zhu Duo Ji, Xiu-Min Ye, Guo-Dong Liang

Accuracy of Five Algorithms to Diagnose Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

Francesco Checchi, François Chappuis, Unni Karunakara, Gerardo Priotto, Daniel Chandramohan