Rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in West Africa.
Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence using six rickettsial antigens (spotted fever and typhus group) in rural populations of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal was found to be 21.4% and 51% for spotted fever group rickettsiae for Dielmo and Ndiop villages, respectively. We investigated the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the cause of acute non-malarial febrile diseases in the same villages. The incidence of rickettsial DNA in 204 blood samples from 134 (62M and 72F) febrile patients negative for malaria was studied. DNA extracted from whole blood was tested by two qPCR systems. Rickettsial DNA was found in nine patients, eight with Rickettsia felis (separately reported). For the first time in West Africa, Rickettsia conorii was diagnosed in one patient. We also tested 2,767 Ixodid ticks collected in two regions of Senegal (Niakhar and Sine-Saloum) from domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, donkeys and horses) by qPCR and identified five different pathogenic rickettsiae. We found the following: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (51.3% and 44.8% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively), in Hyalomma truncatum (6% and 6.8%) and in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.5%, only in Niakhar); R. c. conorii in Rh. e. evertsi (0.4%, only in Sine-Saloum); Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus guilhoni (22.4%, only in Niakhar); Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in Hyalomma truncatum (13.5%, only in Sine-Saloum); and Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.7% and 0.4% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively) as well as in Rhipicephalus annulatus (20%, only in Sine-Saloum). We isolated two rickettsial strains from H. truncatum: R. s. mongolitimonae and R. aeschlimannii.
We believe that together with our previous data on the high prevalence of R. africae in Amblyomma ticks and R. felis infection in patients, the presented results on the distribution of pathogenic rickettsiae in ticks and the first R. conorii case in West Africa show that the rural population of Senegal is at risk for other tick-borne rickettsioses, which are significant causes of febrile disease in this area.
Spotted fever rickettsioses are endemic diseases known since the beginning of the 21st century. They may be severe, like Rocky Mountain Spotted fever in the Americas, and are always transmitted by the tick bite. In Africa, little is known about the prevalence of these diseases; most available data is from the travelers who felt ill after coming back to Europe and USA. We have studied the distribution of bacteria causing different spotted fevers (rickettsiae) in rural Senegal, as well as the role of these bacteria in human pathology among indigenous population. We have found that up to half of tested villagers have serological evidence of contact with rickettsiae and in some cases these bacteria may be found in the blood of feverish patients. From the other side, almost all species of ticks that may be collected in the villages on domestic animals also harbor the pathogenic bacteria. In total, six different species of rickettsiae were identified in ticks. We believe that our data cast light on the problem of unexplained fevers in West Africa.
Citation: Mediannikov O, Diatta G, Fenollar F, Sokhna C, Trape J-F, et al. (2010) Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, Neglected Emerging Diseases in Rural Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(9): e821. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821
Editor: Pamela L. C. Small, University of Tennessee, United States of America
Received: April 14, 2010; Accepted: August 12, 2010; Published: September 14, 2010
Copyright: © 2010 Mediannikov et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis have been regularly reported in North  and South Africa ,  since 1910. Despite Pijper's suggestions , all cases of spotted fevers in sub-Saharan Africa were considered to be Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) with Rickettsia conorii as an agent . Rickettsia conorii was isolated in Tunisia in 1932 . Since that time, multiple cases of the disease and isolations of the agent have been reported, mostly in countries in the Mediterranean region. R. conorii conorii has also been detected in ticks in Kenya, Somalia, South Africa, and Chad . In 1992, however, a case of another spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in a 36-year-old woman presenting with tick bite fever at a hospital in Zimbabwe was described . Authors succeeded in isolating the etiological agent. By PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism they proved that the obtained strain differed from all other SFG rickettsiae, including Rickettsia conorii. The new strain was not, however, absolutely unique. It was indistinguishable from the strains isolated earlier from the Ixodid tick, Amblyomma variegatum, collected in Ethiopia  and from isolates recovered from another tick of the same genus, Amblyomma hebraeum, collected in Zimbabwe in the 1980s . Rickettsia africae, a SFG rickettsia that causes African tick-bite fever (ATBF) officially received its name in 1996 . R. africae seems to be very widely distributed in the continent. It has been either isolated or found by PCR in a number of African countries, including Niger, Mali, Burundi, Sudan , Chad, Ethiopia , and in most countries of equatorial and Southern Africa . The majority of strains and cases are reported in South Africa , . Recently, we have reported the high prevalence of R. africae in A. variegatum in Senegal .
Moreover, many proven and potential rickettsial pathogens were discovered in Africa , mostly in ticks. Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, the agent of lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis (LAR) was identified in ticks in Niger 10 years after its first isolation in China in 1991 . Rickettsia slovaca, which causes tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) in Europe, was found in Dermacentor marginatus ticks in Morocco by PCR . Two Ixodes-associated rickettsiae, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis, were also detected in ticks in North Africa , . Both were reported several times as probable human pathogens, although more information is required regarding their pathogenicity . Beginning in 1994, another SFG rickettsia, Rickettsia massiliae, was repeatedly detected in Rhipicephalus spp. ticks in Central African Republic, Mali, Algeria and Morocco ,,,. The first human case of spotted fever caused by this rickettsia was identified in 2005 . Rickettsia aeschlimannii was first isolated in Morocco in 1992 from the Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick . Genotypically similar or identical strains were reported in many regions, including Kazakhstan, Southern Europe, Zimbabwe, Mali, Niger, and Algeria , . These strains are almost always associated with almost always associated with Hyalomma ticks. Several human cases have been reported in Africa, including the sub-Saharan regions . Many other SFG rickettsiae not previously associated with human diseases have been reported in Ixodid ticks in Africa. Some of them are genetically described and registered under Candidatus status .
Tick-borne rickettsioses play a very important role in public health. A recent worldwide report demonstrated a 5.6% incidence of rickettsial infection in a group of travelers who developed acute febrile infections after returning from sub-Saharan Africa. It is one of the most frequently identified etiology for systemic febrile illness among travelers, following malaria , .
The precise serological identification of the etiological agent of spotted fever in humans may be difficult because of the strong cross-reactivity in serological studies . In some cases, cross-absorption studies and western blots may help , but these techniques may only work in cases in which the suspected agent is known and isolated. In all cases of new and emerging rickettsioses, the serological study may indicate only the group etiology (SFG). One of the first studies performed with R. conorii antigen showed the strikingly high incidence of rickettsial antibodies is human sera from many African countries, including Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire , Zambia , and other countries –. The percentage of seroprevalence found in different studies is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Map of Africa showing the countries where serological studies for SFG rickettsioses were performed before our study.
The numbers on the map indicate seroprevalence in %. The diagram represents relative seroprevalence in different countries and reference [in square brackets].doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.g001
The growing number of newly discovered rickettsial species outlines the indispensable role of molecular methods in microbiology. However, the studies are still in early stages because the distribution of many agents of rickettsioses is incompletely described. West Africa, including Senegal, remains incompletely studied in terms of tick-borne rickettsioses. Despite recent reports of high rates of infection of A. variegatum ticks in Senegal , other tick species were never studied for the presence of rickettsial agents. Thirty-three species of Ixodid ticks are known in Senegal ; many of them are associated with domestic animals and readily bite humans.
The present work was performed in order to enlarge the scant knowledge about tick-borne rickettsioses in Senegal.
Materials and Methods
Human sample collection and treatment
The study was performed in two Senegalese villages, Dielmo (13°43′N;16°24′W) and Ndiop (13°41′N;16°22′W), situated in the Sine-Saloum region. Since 1990, a longitudinal study of malaria and tick-borne relapsing fever has been ongoing in these villages , . The project consists of long-term investigations of host-parasite relationships in the entire village population, which was enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study. The project was approved by the National Ethics Committee of Senegal  and the Local Ethics Committee (Marseille, France). Written individual informed consent was obtained from each participant, including the parents or legal guardians of all children, at the beginning of the current study. Dielmo and Ndiop villagers are settled agricultural workers. Millet and peanut crops are cultivated during the rainy season, and market gardening is the main agricultural activity during the dry season.
Here we used the serological techniques to detect immune response to different rickettsial species. We tested the samples from the serological bank created for the above-mentioned longitudinal study and collected in 2008. In total, 238 serum samples collected in Dielmo in 2008 (mean age 26±18, range from 3 to 78, 117 men and 121 women) and 241 samples from Ndiop (mean age 25±17, range from 5 to 82, 112 men and 129 women) were tested.
Another part of the study was to investigate the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the causes of acute non-malarial febrile disease in rural populations of the same villages. Interviews and sampling were conducted in the same two villages from December 2008 through June 2009. During the period between November 2008 and July 2009, a total of 204 samples from 134 patients (62M and 72F) were included in this study. In this study, we included patients who came into the dispensary with a recent fever and had negative test results for malaria; 103 (77%) were from Dielmo (468 inhabitants) and 31 (23%) from Ndiop (628 inhabitants); 90 (67.2%) were younger than 10 years, including 64 (47.8%) under five years. No one died during the study.
Medical examinations were performed by a medical attendant for each individual with fever (defined by an axillary temperature >37.5°C). A questionnaire was completed for each individual. Whole blood was collected from the fingertip by lancet stick and then applied to glass microscope slides. Thick and thin blood smears were stained with Giemsa and analyzed by microscopy for the trophozoites and gametocytes of malaria. If the malaria test was negative, 200 µl of whole blood (3–4 drops) were collected for DNA extraction. The first stages of DNA extraction (digesting, binding and washing) was performed directly in the village dispensary using the QIAamp kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). The columns with the bound and dry DNA inside were then stored at 4°C before transportation and final elution, which was performed in URMITE, Marseilles, France.
In November-December 2008, ticks were collected from domestic animals (cows, goats, sheep, horses, donkeys) in two regions of Senegal: Sine-Saloum and Niakhar (Table 1, Figure 2). A total of 406 ticks were collected from four villages in the Sine-Saloum region and 2361 ticks from the Niakhar region. They were stored in 70% ethanol. Twenty adult Hyalomma truncatum ticks were preserved alive in a flask at 90–95% of relative humidity. The species and sex were identified according to standard taxonomic keys for adult ticks , .
Figure 2. Map of Senegal with indicated locations of tick collection, species of ticks and a quantity collected.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.g002
Table 1. Geographic coordinates of tick collection sites.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.t001
Live H. truncatum ticks were used for bacterial culture and were not included in the overall statistics. Each was washed in a 10% water solution of a commercial disinfectant-detergent (Amphomousse, Hydenet S.A., Sainghin-en-Melantois, France), then rinsed in sterile water and placed in a 1% solution of sodium hypochlorite for 10 min. After rinsing with distilled water, they were incubated in 70% ethanol for 15 min. A final rinse in sterile phosphate buffer saline preceded inoculation. Ticks were placed in a sterile 1.5 ml plastic tube, where they were triturated with a sterile micropestle in 300 µl of Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) supplied with 4% of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Isolation was done according to the well-known shell-vial technique with modifications . We used 300 µl of whole tick suspension for inoculation of a vial with a monolayer of L929 cells. After centrifugation, the supernatant was removed and conserved. The cells were covered with culture media (MEM, 4% FBS). Antibiotics were not used during the cultivation.
DNA from homogenized ticks that were conserved in ethanol, supernatants collected after shell-vial inoculation, as well as supernatants of cell culture were extracted using the BioRobot MDx Workstation (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France) with a customized extraction protocol following the manufacturer's instructions. DNA was stored at 4°C until use in PCR amplifications. Rickettsial DNA was initially detected by Rickettsia genus-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) reactions that were performed using LightCycler 2.0 equipment and software (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). Master mixtures were prepared by following the instructions of the manufacturer with primers RKND03F and RKND03R and a probe, whose sequences are specific for the sequence of the rickettsial citrate synthase gene. PCR cycling and melting curve conditions have been described previously . A new qPCR system based on rickettsial sca1 gene and specific for R. aeschlimannii was designed and tested for specificity and sensitivity. The sequences of the primers and probe are as follows: forward primer R_aesSca1_F 3′-AAGCGGCACTTTAGGTAAAGAAA-5′, reverse primer R_aesSca1_R 3′-CATGCTCTGCAAATGAACCA-5′, probe 6-FAM®-TGGGGAAATATGCCGTATACGCAAGC-TAMRA®.Specificity was tested with 26 species and strains of different rickettsiae and sensitivity was compared with RKND03 by serial dilutions .
Chosen positive samples were subjected to simple PCR using primers manufactured by Eurogentec, Seraing, Belgium. They amplified almost the complete genetic sequence of rickettsial citrate synthase (gltA), as previously described , . Additionally, a 632 bp fragment of the ompA gene was amplified using Rr. 190.70 and Rr. 190.701 primers .
The screening of DNA from human samples for SFG rickettsiae was also performed with the Rickettsia genus-specific RKND03 qPCR system. The positive results were then confirmed by the “1029 system” based on the RC0338 gene (referenced by R. conorii genome AE006914) coding for hypothetical protein and present in all rickettsiae of spotted fever group . A nested PCR was later used to obtain the larger portion of the rickettsial gltA gene for the subsequent sequencing of the amplicons derived from positive samples. For the nested PCR, CS2d and CSendR primers were used to amplify most of the full-length gltA gene, and the primers RpCS409p and RpCS877p were subsequently used as described above.
We used the amplification of the beta actin gene by specific qPCR  as the control for appropriate handling and extraction of DNA from human samples.
DNA extracted from uninfected ticks from colonies at the Unité des Rickettsies, Marseille, France and sterile cardiac valve biopsies were used as negative controls, and DNA extracted from the cell culture supernatant of Rickettsia bellii served as a positive control. Polymerase chain reactions were performed in automated DNA thermal cyclers (GeneAmp 2400 and 9700; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). PCR products were visualized by electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide, and examined using an ultraviolet transilluminator. The PCR products were purified using a QIAquick Spin PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Sequencing of amplicons was performed using the BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit (Perkin Elmer Applied Biosystems) with an ABI automated sequencer (Applied Biosystems). Obtained sequences were assembled (ChromasPro 1.49 beta, Technelysium Pty Ltd, Tewantin, Australia), edited by BioEdit Sequence alignment editor v. 22.214.171.124 , and compared with those available in GenBank by NCBI BLAST (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi). Sequences of gltA genes from Rickettsiae species chosen in GenBank for comparison were concatenated and aligned with the ClustalW program, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed with Geneious 4.7.6 software (Biomatters Ltd, Australia).
Titers of IgG and IgM antibodies in serum samples obtained from each person were determined using an indirect immunofluorescence assay with antigens generated in-house. We tested sera with the following antigens: R. conorii conorii strain Malish (ATCC VR-613), R. africae strain ESF-5, R. aeschlimanni strain MC16, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae strain HA-91 (ATCC VR-1526), Rickettsia felis strain Marseille (ATCC VR-1525), and R. typhi strain Wilmington. All serum samples were diluted at ratios of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 and were screened for total immunoglobulin. If the serological screening with any rickettsial antigen was positive, final titers for IgG and IgM were determined for all anti-rickettsial antibodies.
Data were analyzed using Epi Info software, version 3.4.1 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA). Non-parametric values were compared using a χ2 test. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05.
We have found that that 51/238 (21.4%) and 123/241 (51%) of randomly screened healthy population of the Dielmo and Ndiop villages of Sine-Saloum region of Senegal, respectively, had serological evidence of contact with rickettsiae (Table 2). We have noted that the prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in sera was higher in young villagers, with the positive ratio declining with age. This tendency was always true for Ndiop; however, in Dielmo only inhabitants older than 40 showed a higher seroprevalence compared with the younger population (Table 2). In most cases, sera reacted with several rickettsial antigens, and the titers of total Ig were low and did not exceed 1/100 (94.1% of positive results in Dielmo and 88% in Ndiop). We found IgM in 2 out of 3 sera with high antibody levels from Dielmo and in 13 of 15 from Ndiop, indicating recent infection. The highest titers for IgG and IgM were 1/256, and both sera were from Ndiop. We identified the antibodies against R. typhi in 6 cases (2.4%) from Dielmo and in 7 cases (2.9%) from Ndiop, but in all cases sera also reacted with rickettsiae of SFG with at least the same titers. Only one patient from Dielmo had low titer (1/50) antibodies against R. felis. His serum also reacted with R. typhi and all SFG rickettsiae. We noted that among all antigens tested, R. africae reacted most often with the tested sera; 49 of 51 (96%) and 110 of 123 (89%) reacted with its antigen in Dielmo and Ndiop respectively; it constitutes 20.6% and 45.6% of tested villagers, respectively. The second most commonly reactive rickettsia was R. sibirica mongolitimonae with 35 sera of 51 (68.6% and 14.7% of tested villagers) positive sera from Dielmo and 93 sera of 123 (75.6% and 35.6% of tested villagers) positive sera from Ndiop.
Table 2. Results of serological screening of the generally healthy population of two villages (Dielmo and Ndiop) of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.t002
As for rickettsial DNA, nine patients who presented in the dispensary with acute fever of non-malarial origin were positive. We considered patients positive only in samples in which the qPCRs for both rickettsial genes were positive and the subsequent standard PCR/sequencing produced the rickettsial gltA gene. Data for eight of the patients positive for the DNA of R. felis were already reported . In one patient, we have successfully amplified the DNA of Rickettsia conorii conorii. The patient was a 4-year-old girl with tachycardia and a fever that appeared on the same day (27 March 2009). No rash or eschar was noticed during her examination. Paracetamol was prescribed and the girl was sent home. The fever resolved within several days without antibiotics.
We have collected ticks of seven different species on domestic animals (Table 3), 491 ticks from four villages in the Sine-Saloum region and 2494 ticks from 16 villages of the Niakhar region. The results of studies of Amblyomma variegatum ticks have already been reported (74/85 (87.1%) and 101/133 (79.7%) positive for R. africae, respectively, for both regions) . The majority of ticks in both regions (268 of 406 (66%) and 2090 of 2361 (88.5%)) were represented by Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (Figure 3). In our study, Rhipicephalus guilhoni was the predominantly collected species in the Niakhar region (49 of 50 ticks collected). Most of the ticks (85.7%) were collected from donkeys. We have collected only five Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks and these ticks were all collected in the Sine-Saloum region. Another species, Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus, was only collected in the Niakhar region. Two species of the Hyalomma genus were collected in both regions. Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was less common than Hyalomma truncatum in Sine-Saloum (58 ticks collected versus 74) when compared with Niakhar (115 versus 67).
Figure 3. Photos of ticks studied with indication of rickettsiae found by PCR.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.g003
Table 3. Tick species collected in Senegal and studied for SFG rickettsiae.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.t003
Molecular identification of rickettsiae in ticks
We found three different rickettsial species in Rh. e. evertsi, with a low rate of infection from 0.4 to 0.7% (Table 3). In the Sine-Saloum region, one tick collected from the horse was infected with R. conorii conorii, the agent of MSF. One tick from Sine-Saloum and 14/2090 (0.7%) total were infected with R. africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever. This finding represents the first time that it was found in Rh. e. evertsi. In the Niakhar region, 10 (0.5%) ticks were infected by R. aeschlimannii. In both regions we were able to amplify and sequence almost complete gltA gene (all samples positive by qPCR were subjected to standard PCR and sequencing). The gltA sequence was not absolutely identical to the R. africae reference strain (ESF-5), the clonality of which was previously based on analysis of strains isolated from patients and A. variegatum ticks . Moreover, the sequence of the gltA gene of R. aeschlimannii found in Rh. e. evertsi differed slightly from all GenBank records. The phylogenetic positions of these rickettsiae are shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4. Phylogenetic tree based on aligned complete sequences of gltA gene and constructed by neighbor-joining method. Numbers in nodes represent bootstrap values.
The tree shows the position of isolates and amplicons from ticks collected in Senegal.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.g004
We have identified only one rickettsia in Rh. guilhoni and only in the Niakhar region. All samples positive by qPCR were subjected to a standard PCR (ompA and gltA genes) and amplicons were sequenced. Both genes showed 100% identity with R. massiliae strain Bar29 isolated from Rh. sanguineus from Spain. The rate of infection in the Niakhar region is 22.4%; in Sine-Saloum the only collected tick was negative by PCR.
We have also tested two species of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks; R. africae was also detected in one Rh. (B.) annulatus tick from Sine-Saloum. The gltA and ompA sequences were identical to the reference strain, ESF-5. All of our Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus ticks were negative when tested by rickettsial genus-specific qPCR. We found that 44.8% and 51.3% of H. marginatum rufipes ticks in the Sine-Saloum and Niakhar regions, respectively, are infected with R. aeschlimannii. In our study, it was the only species of rickettsiae identified in this species of tick. All ticks positive by genus-specific qPCR were subjected to a R. aeschlimannii-specific qPCR and all were found to be positive. In 6.8% and 4.6% of H. truncatum ticks from the Sine-Saloum and Niakhar regions, respectively, we found a variant of R. aeschlimannii that insignificantly differed from the one found in Rh. e. evertsi and H. m. rufipes (Figure 4). We also identified R. s. mongolitimonae in 13.5% of ticks, but only in the Sine-Saloum region. All ticks positive by genus-specific qPCR were tested for R. aeschlimannii-specific qPCR. Positive ticks were considered to harbor R. aeschlimannii and all negative ticks were subjected to a standard PCR with sequencing. The gltA gene of R. s. mongolitimonae was identified in all positive ticks.
We have also succeeded in isolating two strains of rickettsiae from Hyalomma truncatum collected in Dielmo village, in the region of Sine-Saloum. Both strains were deposited in official collection of Unité des Rickettsies, Medical Faculty, Marseilles, France (http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/portail2/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=96) under the following references: CSUR R175 for R. s. mongolitimonae strain RH05 and CSUR R176 for R. aeschlimannii strain RH15. Sequences of the rrs, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes of R. sibirica mongolitimonae, strain RH05, were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers HM050271, HM050296, HM050272, HM050273, and HM050295, respectively. Sequences of the rrs, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes of R. aeschlimannii, strain RH15, were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers HM050274, HM050276, HM050277, HM050278, and HM050275, respectively. According to the proposed criteria for species definition in rickettsiology , the isolated bacteria do not belong to a new species. Strain RH05 was close but not identical to R. s. mongolitimonae. Strain RH15 was also close but not identical to R. aeschlimannii. The degree of divergence of the five above-mentioned genes from the closest relative (R. s. mongolitimonae for RH05 and R. aeschlimannii for RH15) was less than that required for the definition of a new species. Genes of both strains were almost completely identical with sequenced amplicons from H. truncatum ticks.
Sequenced amplicons from the ticks were registered in GenBank under the following accession numbers: gltA and ompA genes of R. s. mongolitimonae from H. truncatum voucher #90105 (HM050279 and HM050280); gltA and ompA genes of R. aeschlimannii from H. truncatum voucher #90361 (HM050282 and HM050281); gltA and ompA genes of R. aeschlimannii from H. m. rufipes voucher #83512 (HM050283 and HM050284); voucher #83467 (HM050285 and HM050286); gltA and ompA genes of R. africae from Rh. e. evertsi voucher #83298 (HM050288 and HM050287); gltA and ompA genes of R. aeschlimannii from Rh. e. evertsi voucher #92200 (HM050289 and HM050290); gltA and ompA genes of R. massiliae from Rh. guilhoni voucher #93995 (HM050293 and HM050294); and gltA and ompA genes of R conorii from Rh. e. evertsi.voucher#90310 (HM050292 and HM050291).
Entomological studies performed in two regions of Senegal confirmed that Ixodid ticks, the potential vectors of spotted fevers in Senegal, are highly prevalent in domestic animals and that the close contact of humans with ticks is continual and permanent. Seven different tick species of 33 known in Senegal were collected in the studied regions. The most abundant species, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, is one of the most common ticks that feed not only on domestic animals, but also many species of wild animals in Africa , . The species is confined to the Afrotropical zoogeographical region in sub-Saharan Africa . This species, although very common and prevalent, has not been frequently studied as the vector of agents of humans and animal diseases. To date, it has been known to transmit the protozoa Babesia bigemina , Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) , and Ehrlichia ruminantium . Rickettsial agents have not been previously reported in these ticks, although tick hemolymph tests showed the presence of rickettsial-like organisms . Here, we report the first identification of R. conorii in Senegal and in this tick. This report also provides the first evidence of the role of this tick species in the epidemiology of MSF. Despite its very low infection rate (that is, in fact, always very low for all vectors of MSF ), the abundance of this tick and its close contact with humans who take care of and often live close to animals increases the probability of infection. Two other rickettsial species, R. africae and R. aeschlimannii, were not previously reported in Rh. e. evertsi.
Rh. guilhoni is a member of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus group. It can be a common tick in the drier areas in a horizontal band south of the Sahara. Cattle, sheep, horses, and dogs, as well as wild carnivores and birds are the preferred hosts of adult Rh. guilhoni . The only previously known pathogenic agent associated with this species is CCHFV , although the disease itself has never been reported to result from a bite by this tick. R. massiliae, a recently emerged pathogen , was found in our study of this tick. Interestingly, this rarely studied species was collected from donkeys and ruminants and not from dogs, which are the usual hosts for ticks of the R. sanguineus group.
Ticks of the Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus are one-host ticks with a monotropic type of behavior. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus transmits the protozoans Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis to cattle, both of which cause bovine babesiosis. It also transmits Anaplasma marginale and Eh. ruminantium to cattle . R. africae has also been found in the closely related species, Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus . Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus was already shown to harbor R. africae in Botswana . Our finding of typical R. africae in Rh. (B.) annulatus is not surprising. The low percentage of infection compared with A. variegatum collected in the same region from the same animals may be explained by lower genus/species susceptibility to R. africae.
H. marginatum rufipes is the most widespread Hyalomma in Africa and is notorious as a vector of the CCHF virus . The feeding of adults on cattle often causes large lesions at the attachment sites, leading to the formation of severe abscesses. It has also been identified as a host of R. aeschlimannii , which our data supported. H. truncatum is found predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa where it may be the most common Hyalomma. This species of tick is notorious for causing many types of direct damage to its hosts. Certain strains of H. truncatum have a toxin in their saliva that causes the skin disease known as sweating sickness in cattle , particularly calves. H. truncatum also transmits the protozoan Babesia caballi to horses . Rickettsia-like organisms have been previously observed microscopically in this species . We found R. s. mongolitimonae, which causes lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, in this aggressive tick that readily bites humans. Interestingly, the reported clinical picture of the illness caused by this rickettsia strikingly resembles the description of the disease of “young shepherds” mentioned by the village chiefs. The theory that rickettsiae are responsible for this disease is also supported by the highest seroprevalence in the younger members of the village population.
Finally, we have identified five different pathogenic rickettsial species in tick vectors with an incidence up to 51.3% (R. aeschlimannii in H. marginatum rufipes). R. africae is a pathogen known to be responsible for African tick-bite fever. The high incidence (87.1%) of this rickettsia in A. variegatum ticks was previously reported. We have found that, although to a lesser degree, two other species of ticks, Rh. e. evertsi and Boophilus (Rhipicephalus) annulatus, may harbor this pathogen. R. aeschlimannii is a recently recognized pathogen . The properties of aggressivity, abundance, and the high rate of infection of vectors that are characteristic of ticks of the Hyalomma genus may enhance the probability of this infection.
We suppose that ticks in Senegal may play an important role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases, primarily because of the elevated probability of contact with humans and because of high levels of rickettsial infection in ticks. Indirect evidence of the role of Ixodid ticks in vector-borne diseases may be obtained from local populations. The village chiefs of Dielmo and Ndiop told us, for instance, that the beginning of the field activities of children coincides with the appearance of multiple eschar-like lesions on the child's ankles that is often associated with a fever. This description perfectly corresponds with many rickettsial diseases, including African tick-bite fever (Table 4). Several publications from other regions confirm that Ixodid ticks, and especially tick larvae, may be a serious pest, causing “skin disease” , . Here and in previous works , we have shown that A. variegatum, H. marginatum rufipes, H. truncatum, and Rh. evertsi evertsi are among the most important species that may have a contact with humans.
Table 4. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of spotted fevers caused by rickettsiae found in this study.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.t004
The results of the serological screening confirmed our assumption. They showed a very high prevalence (21.4% and 51% in Dielmo and Ndiop, respectively) of sera that react with rickettsial antigens (spotted fever group) in a generally healthy population of rural Senegal. Generally, our results correspond with the previous data from Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, and Guinea-Bissau where an incidence of rickettsial antibodies in human sera of up to 36% was shown . Preliminary results show that two rickettsial species, R. africae and R. sibirica mongolitimonae, which show a greater affinity with human sera may play a more important role in human pathology in the studied regions. R. aeschlimannii, which is most prevalent in ticks, is not as pathogenic as two above-mentioned rickettsiae, however, because of cross-reactivity among rickettsiae of spotted-fever group and R. felis, based on performed serological studies we may not say exactly which species of rickettsia play the most important role in elevated seroprevalence in West Africa.
We have also studied the role of rickettsial infections as possible causes of acute fevers in the indigenous population of rural Senegal. It was found that rickettsioses may be responsible for up to 6.7% of cases of recent acute non-malarial fever in the rural dispensary. Although most of the cases were found to be caused by flea-borne rickettsiosis caused by R. felis , in 0.7% the origin of the fever was tick-borne rickettsia. The identified case was from Dielmo village, and the tick positive for R. conorii (Rh. e. evertsi) was collected in Medina, a small village not far from Ndiop. Despite the very low percentage of infected ticks, we succeeded in the identification of this rickettsia in the blood of a febrile girl that was evidently ill with Mediterranean spotted fever.
The prevalence of five tick-borne and one flea-borne rickettsiae in the same region poses a question about cross-protection. To the best of our knowledge, no other region in the world has yet been found to present such a variety of pathogenic rickettsiae. The model studies that have been performed in animals since the beginning of 20th century often showed opposite results (Table 5), even when the same animals and rickettsiae were tested, for instance R. conorii and R. africae on guinea pigs , . Usually, broader cross-protection was seen when sublethal doses of live rickettsiae were used for immunization ,  when compared with inactivated bacteria. No studies in humans have been performed. In Senegal, the natural condition favors simultaneous contact of the rural population with different rickettsiae, so further studies on the dynamics of antibody levels over several years and their protective significance should be performed. Moreover, the prevalence Q fever in humans and its causative agent, C. burnetii, in ticks in the same regions  shows that these regions of rural Senegal present a natural reservoir of at least several emerging zoonoses.
Table 5. Selected literature data on serological cross-protection among different spotted fever group rickettsiae in animal models.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000821.t005
In conclusion, we have to emphasize that the pathogenic spotted fever rickettsiae are very common in rural Senegal. Both occasional travelers and local villagers have a very high probability of being infected. Unfortunately, the modern reader is familiar almost exclusively with rickettsioses as the cause of returning travelers' fever . The fevers in returning travelers are easy to identify, because these people are usually intently observed after returning. In contrast, little is known about rickettsioses in the local indigenous African population. The only known report is from Cameroon , where seven cases were described based on the molecular identification of R. africae in the blood of febrile patients. The integral approach applied in our work (studies of vectors, seroprevalence, and causes of acute fevers) allowed us to reveal the important role of rickettsial diseases in public health in Western Africa.
Our results are compatible with previously reported data, and the very high prevalence of spotted fevers may be explained by the surprising number of pathogenic rickettsiae identified in the studied region (R. conorii conorii, R. africae, R. sibirica mongolitimonae, R. aeschlimannii, and R. massiliae). We have summarized the clinical and epidemiological data concerning spotted fevers caused by all five tick-borne rickettsiae (Table 4). In addition, our study contributes to the discovery of the origin of unexplained fevers in Africa. We showed that up to 6.7% (9 of 134) of acute non-malarial fevers in rural Africa may have rickettsial (R. felis and R. conorii) origin.
Based on these data, we concluded that tick-borne rickettsioses together with Q fever , flea-borne rickettsiosis caused by R. felis , Tropheryma whipplei infection , and tick-borne relapsing fever  are major public health problems in West Africa. Taking into consideration that the role of tick-borne fevers in West Africa was previously underestimated, it is very important to perform long-term surveys on the distribution of vector ticks and rickettsiae, as well as screening targeted groups, both tourists and the indigenous population. We suggest implementing diagnostic procedures and adapted treatments in the field to enhance the health of the people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa.
Translation of the abstract of the article Tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural Senegal into Russian language by author O. Mediannikov
(0.00 MB DOC)
Translation of the abstract of the article Tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural Senegal into French language by author O. Mediannikov
(0.02 MB DOC)
(0.10 MB DOC)
Conceived and designed the experiments: OM GD FF J-FT DR. Performed the experiments: OM GD. Analyzed the data: OM GD FF CS J-FT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CS J-FT DR. Wrote the paper: OM DR.
- 1. Conor A, Bruch A (1910) Une fièvre eruptive observée en Tunisie. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filial 8: 492–496.
- 2. McNaught JG (1911) A tick-bite in the Union of South Africa. J R Army Med Corps 16: 505.
- 3. Sant'Anna JF (1912) On a disease in man following tick-bites and occurring in Lourenco Marques. Parasitology 4: 87–88.
- 4. Pijper A (1936) Etude expérimentale comparée de la Fièvre boutonneuse et de la Tick-Bite-Fever. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 25: 388–401.
- 5. Gear JHS (1938) South African typhus. S Afr J Med Sci 3: 134–160.
- 6. Blanc G, Caminopetros J (1932) Etudes épidémiologiques et expérimentales sur la fièvre boutonneuse, faites a l'Institut Pasteur d'Athénes. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 20(4): 343–394.
- 7. Rovery C, Raoult D (2008) Mediterranean spotted fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am 22: 515–530. S0891-5520(08)00022-6 [pii];10.1016/j.idc.2008.03.003 [doi].
- 8. Kelly PJ, Matthewman LA, Beati L, Raoult D, Mason P, et al. (1992) African tick-bite fever: a new spotted fever group rickettsiosis under an old name. Lancet 340: 982–983.
- 9. Philip CB, Hoogstraal H, Reiss-Gutfreund R, Clifford CM (1966) Evidence of rickettsial disease agents in ticks from Ethiopian cattle. Bull World Health Organ 35: 127–131.
- 10. Beati L, Kelly PJ, Matthewman LA, Mason P, Raoult D (1995) Prevalence of Rickettsia-like organisms and spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks (Acari : Ixodidae) from Zimbabwe. J Med Entomol 32: 787–792.
- 11. Kelly PJ, Beati L, Mason PR, Matthewman LA, Roux V, et al. (1996) Rickettsia africae sp. nov., the etiological agent of African tick bite fever. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46: 611–614.
- 12. Parola P, Inokuma H, Camicas JL, Brouqui P, Raoult D (2001) Detection and identification of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in African ticks. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 1014–1017.
- 13. Mura A, Socolovschi C, Ginesta J, Lafrance B, Magnan S, et al. (2008) Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 945–949. S0035-9203(08)00113-2 [pii];10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.03.015 [doi].
- 14. Cazorla C, Socolovschi C, Jensenius M, Parola P (2008) Tick-borne diseases: tick-borne spotted fever rickettsioses in Africa. Infect Dis Clin North Am 22: 531–544. S0891-5520(08)00016-0 [pii];10.1016/j.idc.2008.03.009 [doi].
- 15. Raoult D, Fournier PE, Fenollar F, Jensenius M, Prioe T, et al. (2001) Rickettsia africae, a tick-borne pathogen in travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. N Engl J Med 344: 1504–1510.
- 16. Mediannikov O, Trape JF, Diatta G, Parola P, Fournier PE, et al. (2010) Rickettsia africae, Western Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 571–573.
- 17. Sarih M, Socolovschi C, Boudebouch N, Hassar M, Raoult D, et al. (2008) Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 1067–1073.
- 18. Dib L, Bitam I, Bensouilah M, Parola P, Raoult D (2009) First description of Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus in Algeria. Clin Microbiol Infect. CLM2277 [pii];10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02277.x [doi].
- 19. Bitam I, Parola P, Matsumoto K, Rolain JM, Baziz B, et al. (2006) First molecular detection of R. conorii, R. aeschlimannii, and R. massiliae in ticks from Algeria. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078: 368–372. 1078/1/368 [pii];10.1196/annals.1374.073 [doi].
- 20. Dupont HT, Cornet JP, Raoult D (1994) Identification of rickettsiae from ticks collected in the Central African Republic using the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50: 373–380.
- 21. Vitale G, Mansueto S, Rolain JM, Raoult D (2005) Rickettsia massiliae human isolation. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 174–175.
- 22. Beati L, Meskini M, Thiers B, Raoult D (1997) Rickettsia aeschlimannii sp. nov., a new spotted fever group rickettsia associated with Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47: 548–554.
- 23. Matsumoto K, Parola P, Rolain JM, Jeffrey I, Raoult D (2006) Detection of “Candidatus Rickettsia uilenbergi” and “Candidatus Rickettsia davousti” in Amblyomma tholloni ticks from elephants in Africa. BMC Microbiol In revision.
- 24. Freedman DO, Weld LH, Kozarsky PE, Fisk T, Robins R, et al. (2006) Spectrum of disease and relation to place of exposure among ill returned travelers. N Engl J Med 354: 119–130. 354/2/119 [pii];10.1056/NEJMoa051331 [doi].
- 25. Jensenius M, Davis X, von SF, Schwartz E, Keystone JS, et al. (2009) Multicenter GeoSentinel analysis of rickettsial diseases in international travelers, 1996-2008. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 1791–1798.
- 26. Raoult D, Roux V (1997) Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev 10: 694–719.
- 27. Jensenius M, Fournier PE, Vene S, Ringertz SH, Myrvang B, et al. (2004) Comparison of immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and cross-adsorption assays for diagnosis of African tick bite fever. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11: 786–788.
- 28. Tissot-Dupont H, Brouqui P, Faugere B, Raoult D (1995) Prevalence of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia conorii, and Rickettsia typhi in seven African countries. Clin Infect Dis 21: 1126–1133.
- 29. Okabayashi T, Hasebe F, Samui KL, Mweene AS, Pandey SG, et al. (1999) Short report: prevalence of antibodies against spotted fever, murine typhus, and Q fever rickettsiae in humans living in Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 70–72.
- 30. Kovacova E, Sixl W, Stunzner D, Urvolgyi J, Kazar J (1996) Serological examination of human and animal sera from six countries of three continents for the presence of rickettsial antibodies. Eur J Epidemiol 12: 85–89.
- 31. Maurice Y, Fernagut R, Gerome R (1968) [Rickettsial diseases of North Cameroon; epidemiological study]. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 21: 341–349.
- 32. Redus MA, Parker RA, McDade JE (1986) Prevalence and distribution of spotted fever and typhus infections in Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast. Int J Zoonoses 13: 104–111.
- 33. Gray GC, Rodier GR, Matras-Maslin VC, Honein MA, Ismail EA, et al. (1995) Serologic evidence of respiratory and rickettsial infections among Somali refugees. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 349–353.
- 34. Botros BA, Soliman A, Darwish M, el Said S, Morill JC, et al. (1989) Seroprevalence of murine typhus and Fièvre Boutonneuse in certain human populations in Egypt. J Trop Med Hyg 92: 373–378.
- 35. Kalivogi S (1986) Epidemiology and prophylaxis of Q fever and spotted fever group rickettsioses in Guinea [dissertation]. Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Moscow: 134 p.
- 36. Niang M, Parola P, Tissot-Dupont H, Baidi L, Brouqui P, et al. (1998) Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi and Coxiella burnetii in Mauritania. Eur J Epidemiol 14: 817–818.
- 37. Meskini M, Beati L, Benslimane A, Raoult D (1995) Seroepidemiology of rickettsial infections in Morocco. Eur J Epidemiol 11: 655–660.
- 38. Anstey NM, Tissot-Dupont H, Hahn CG, Mwaikambo ED, McDonald MI, et al. (1997) Seroepidemiology of Rickettsia typhi, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Coxiella burnetii infection in pregnant women from urban Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 187–189.
- 39. Letaief AO, Yacoub S, Tissot-Dupont H, Le Cam C, Ghachem L, et al. (1995) Seroepidemiological survey of rickettsial infections among blood donors in central Tunisia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89: 266–268.
- 40. Kelly PJ, Mason PR, Matthewman LA, Raoult D (1991) Seroepidemiology of spotted fever group rickettsial infections in human in Zimbabwe. J Trop Med Hyg 94: 304–309.
- 41. Dione , M M (2004) Contribution a l'etude des tiques vectrices d'agents pathogenes au Senegal: distribution et identification de zones a risque de la fievre hemorrhagique de Crimee-Congo (FCHH) et la cowdriose [dissertation]. Faculte de Medecine, de Pharmacie et d'Odonto-Stomatologie de Dakar. 120 p.
- 42. Trape JF, Rogier C, Konate L, Diagne N, Bouganali H, et al. (1994) The Dielmo project: a longitudinal study of natural malaria infection and the mechanisms of protective immunity in a community living in a holoendemic area of Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 123–137.
- 43. Vial L, Diatta G, Tall A, Ba eH, Bouganali H, et al. (2006) Incidence of tick-borne relapsing fever in west Africa: longitudinal study. Lancet 368: 37–43. S0140-6736(06)68968-X [pii];10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68968-X [doi].
- 44. Walker AR, Bouattour A, Camicas JL, Estrada-Pena A, Horak IG, et al. (2003) Ticks of domestic animals in Africa. Edinburgh, UK. Bioscience Reports.
- 45. Hoogstraal H (1956) African Ixodoidea: I. Ticks of the Sudan (With special reference to Equatoria Province and with preliminary reviews of the genera Boophilus, Margaropus, and Hyalomma). Washington, DC.
- 46. Kelly PJ, Raoult D, Mason PR (1991) Isolation of spotted fever group rickettsias from triturated ticks using a modification of the centrifugation-shell vial technique. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85: 397–398.
- 47. Rolain JM, Sthul L, Maurin M, Raoult D (2002) Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of three Rickettsial species including Rickettsia felis by a quantitative PCR DNA assay. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 2747–2751.
- 48. Roux V, Rydkina E, Eremeeva M, Raoult D (1997) Citrate synthase gene comparison, a new tool for phylogenetic analysis, and its application for the rickettsiae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47: 252–261.
- 49. Mediannikov OY, Sidelnikov Y, Ivanov L, Mokretsova E, Fournier PE, et al. (2004) Acute tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia heilongjiangensis in Russian Far East. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 810–817.
- 50. Fournier PE, Roux V, Raoult D (1998) Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae by study of the outer surface protein rOmpA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48: 839–849.
- 51. Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Sokhna C, Tall A, Diatta G, et al. (2010) Rickettsia felis, a common cause of uneruptive fever in rural Senegal. Emerg Infect 2010 Jul; 16(7): 1140–2.
- 52. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser 41: 95–98.
- 53. Fournier PE, El KK, Leroy Q, Robert C, Giumelli B, et al. (2009) Analysis of the Rickettsia africae genome reveals that virulence acquisition in Rickettsia species may be explained by genome reduction. BMC Genomics 10: 166. 1471- 2164-10-166[pii];10.1186/1471-2164-10-166[doi].
- 54. Fournier PE, Dumler JS, Greub G, Zhang J, Wu Y, et al. (2003) Gene sequence-based criteria for identification of new rickettsia isolates and description of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 41: 5456–5465.
- 55. Swai ES, Mtui PF, Chang'a AK, Machange GE (2008) The prevalence of serum antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in ranch cattle in Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. J S Afr Vet Assoc 79: 71–75.
- 56. Hove T, Sithole N, Munodzana D, Masaka S (1998) Isolation and characterization of a Babesia species from Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi ticks picked off a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) which died of acute babesiosis. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 65: 75–80.
- 57. Zeller HG, Cornet JP, Diop A, Camicas JL (1997) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and ruminants: field observations of an epizootic in Bandia, Senegal (1989-1992). J Med Entomol 34: 511–516.
- 58. Allsopp MT, van Strijp MF, Faber E, Josemans AI, Allsopp BA (2007) Ehrlichia ruminantium variants which do not cause heartwater found in South Africa. Vet Microbiol 120: 158–166. S0378-1135(06)00425-1 [pii];10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.10.026 [doi].
- 59. Robinson JB, Eremeeva ME, Olson PE, Thornton SA, Medina MJ, et al. (2009) New approaches to detection and identification of Rickettsia africae and Ehrlichia ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from the Caribbean. J Med Entomol 46: 942–951.
- 60. Portillo A, Perez-Martinez L, Santibanez S, Blanco JR, Ibarra V, et al. (2007) Detection of Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus ticks from the Republic of Botswana, South Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 376–377. 77/2/376 [pii].
- 61. Camicas JL, Cornet JP, Gonzalez JP, Wilson ML, Adam F, et al. (1994) [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Senegal. Latest data on the ecology of the CCHF virus]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 87: 11–16.
- 62. Spickett AM, Burger DB, Crause JC, Roux EM, Neitz AW (1991) Sweating sickness: relative curative effect of hyperimmune serum and a precipitated immunoglobulin suspension and immunoblot identification of proposed immunodominant tick salivary gland proteins. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 58: 223–226.
- 63. Mokrani N, Parola P, Tebbal S, Dalichaouche M, Aouati A, et al. (2008) Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 1814–1815.
- 64. Nduaka O, Ikeme MM (1973) Human skin lesions in East Central State, Nigeria due to the larvae of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius, 1794). Niger Med J 3: 140–143.
- 65. Nakamura-Uchiyama F, Komuro Y, Yoshii A, Nawa Y (2000) Amblyomma testudinarium tick bite : one case of engorged adult and a case of extraordinary number of larval tick infestation. J Dermatol 27: 774–777.
- 66. Pijper A (1936) Etude expérimentale comparée de la Fièvre boutonneuse et de la Tick-Bite-Fever. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 25: 388–401.
- 67. Bozeman FM, Humphries JW, Campbell JM, O'Hara PL (1960) Laboratory studies of the spotted fever group of rickettsiae. In: Wisseman CLJ, editor. Symposium on the spotted fever group of rickettsiae. Washington, D.C.: Walter Reed Army Medical Center. pp. 7–11.
- 68. Philip RN, Casper EA, Burgdorfer W, Gerloff RK, Hugues LE, et al. (1978) Serologic typing of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group by micro immunofluoresence. J Immunol 121: 1961–1968.
- 69. Davis GE (1934) Comparative experiments on spotted fever and boutonneuse fever. Pub Health Rep 49: 423.
- 70. Mediannikov O, Fenollar F, Socolovschi C, Diatta G, Bassene H, et al. (2010) Coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 Apr 6; 4(4): e654.
- 71. Ndip LM, Fokam EB, Bouyer DH, Ndip RN, Titanji VP, et al. (2004) Detection of Rickettsia africae in patients and ticks along the coastal region of Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 363–366. 71/3/363 [pii].
- 72. Fenollar F, Trape JF, Bassene H, Sokhna C, Raoult D (2009) Tropheryma whipplei in fecal samples from children, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 922–924.
- 73. Badger LF (1933) Rocky Mountain spotted fever and boutonneuse fever. A study of their immunological relationships. Public Health Rep 48: 507.
- 74. Plotz H, Smadel JE, Bennet BI (1946) North Queensland tick typhus: studies of the aetiological agent and its relation to other rickettsial diseases. Med J Aust 263–268.
- 75. Parker RR, Kohls GM, Cox GW, Davis GE (1939) Observations on an infectious agent from Amblyomma maculatum. Public Health Rep 54: 1482–1484.
- 76. Korshunova OS (1943) About etiology of Far Eastern tick-borne typhus. Part I [In Russian]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1-2: 51–55.
- 77. Feng WC, Waner JL (1980) Serological cross-reaction and cross-protection in guinea pigs infected with Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia montana. Infect Immun 28: 627–629.