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Research Article

Necator americanus and Helminth Co-Infections: Further Down-Modulation of Hookworm-Specific Type 1 Immune Responses

  • Stefan Michael Geiger mail,

    stefan@cpqrr.fiocruz.br

    Affiliations: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Neal Douglas Edward Alexander,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Department for Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara,

    Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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  • Simon Brooker,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Department for Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Bonnie Cundill,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Department for Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • David Joseph Diemert,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira,

    Affiliation: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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  • Jeffrey Michael Bethony

    Affiliations: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Published: September 06, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001280

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