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Research Article

Deliberate Attenuation of Chikungunya Virus by Adaptation to Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Infectivity: A Model for Rational Arboviral Vaccine Design

  • Christina L. Gardner,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jozef Hritz,

    Affiliation: CEITEC, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

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  • Chengqun Sun,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Dana L. Vanlandingham,

    Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine & Pathobiology, Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America

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  • Timothy Y. Song,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Elodie Ghedin,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Stephen Higgs,

    Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine & Pathobiology, Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America

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  • William B. Klimstra,

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Kate D. Ryman mail

    ryman@pitt.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Published: February 20, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002719

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