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Research Article

HTLV-1 Tax Specific CD8+ T Cells Express Low Levels of Tim-3 in HTLV-1 Infection: Implications for Progression to Neurological Complications

  • Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Fabio E. Leal

    lndhlovu@medsfgh.ucsf.edu; lndhlovu@hawaii.edu

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Fabio E. Leal equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Fabio E. Leal

    Affiliations: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Aaron M. Hasenkrug,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Aashish R. Jha,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Karina I. Carvalho,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    X
  • Ijeoma G. Eccles-James,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Fernanda R. Bruno,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    X
  • Raphaella G. S. Vieira,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Vanessa A. York,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Glen M. Chew,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • R. Brad Jones,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Yuetsu Tanaka,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

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  • Walter K. Neto,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Sabri S. Sanabani,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Mario A. Ostrowski,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Aluisio C. Segurado,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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  • Douglas F. Nixon ,

    Affiliation: Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Esper G. Kallas

    Affiliations: Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

    X
  • Published: April 26, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001030

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