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Research Article

Elevated Adaptive Immune Responses Are Associated with Latent Infections of Wuchereria bancrofti

  • Kathrin Arndts equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Kathrin Arndts, Susanne Deininger

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Susanne Deininger equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Kathrin Arndts, Susanne Deininger

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Sabine Specht,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Ute Klarmann,

    Affiliations: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany, Institute of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Sabine Mand,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Tomabu Adjobimey,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Alexander Y. Debrah,

    Affiliations: Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, and School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

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  • Linda Batsa,

    Affiliation: Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana

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  • Alexander Kwarteng,

    Affiliation: Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana

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  • Christian Epp,

    Affiliation: Department für Infektiologie, Parasitologie, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Mark Taylor,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Ohene Adjei,

    Affiliations: Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, and School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

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  • Laura E. Layland mail,

    laura.layland@microbiology-bonn.de

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Achim Hoerauf

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Published: April 03, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001611

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