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Research Article

Immune Evasion and Recognition of the Syphilis Spirochete in Blood and Skin of Secondary Syphilis Patients: Two Immunologically Distinct Compartments

  • Adriana R. Cruz,

    Affiliation: Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia

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  • Lady G. Ramirez,

    Affiliation: Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia

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  • Ana V. Zuluaga,

    Affiliation: Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia

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  • Allan Pillay,

    Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Christine Abreu,

    Affiliation: Clinical Research Center, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Carlos A. Valencia,

    Affiliation: Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia

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  • Carson La Vake,

    Affiliations: Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Jorge L. Cervantes,

    Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Star Dunham-Ems,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Richard Cartun,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Domenico Mavilio,

    Affiliation: Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy

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  • Justin D. Radolf,

    Affiliations: Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Juan C. Salazar mail

    jsalaza@ccmckids.org

    Affiliations: Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia, Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, United States of America, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Published: July 17, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001717

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