For the first time in modern scientific history, chikungunya virus has established its mosquito-human transmission cycle in the Americas. In this editorial, Scott C. Weaver explains that the history of dengue control, recent findings on chikungunya strain variation, and public health preparedness indicate the likelihood of the further spread of this outbreak.
Given the detrimental interaction between both pathogens, visceral leishmaniasis (VL)–HIV co-infection has been identified as one of the emerging challenges for VL control. In this Viewpoints article, Johan van Griensven and colleagues explain that similarly to tuberculosis–HIV co-infection, successful management and control of VL–HIV co-infection will hinge on the effective coordination of both VL and HIV programs.
Haiti is one of only four countries left in the Americas where transmission of lymphatic filariasis still occurs. A national program to eliminate LF (NPELF) was started in Haiti in 2000 and by 2005, a population of 1.6 million persons in 24 communes, including the majority of high prevalence communes, was targeted at least once for mass drug administration (MDA).
In this Review, Michael F. Minnick and colleagues discuss the current state of knowledge regarding Bartonella bacilliformis, a life-threatening, neglected bacterial pathogen and review its host-cell parasitism, molecular pathogenesis, phylogeny, sand fly vectors, diagnostics, and prospects for control.
In this research article, Steven T. Stoddard and colleagues analyzed 10 years of fully confirmed dengue cases reported to a sentinel surveillance system in Iquitos, Peru. They describe the inter- and intra-annual patterns of weekly case counts and relate these to climate and local vector control efforts.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, resources for disease management in Azerbaijan were dramatically diminished leading to increases in zoonotic diseases. In this study, the objective of Ian Kracalik and colleagues was to analyze human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, and after the implementation of a preemptive livestock vaccination campaign to identify potential changes in the occurrence of the disease.
In this study, Joseph D. Planer and colleagues tested a set of 24 drugs used to treat Chagas disease in every two way combination and identified eight synergistic partners. They found that at least two of these combinations were able to substantially lower parasite levels in the mouse model of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.